Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Strong debate about the advantages and disadvantages of fair-value Assignment

Strong debate about the advantages and disadvantages of fair-value accounting - Assignment Example These are the estimates that they would get if they were to sell the financial instruments in this case assets and liabilities. The companies report profits or losses when the value of their assets increase or their liabilities decreases. The losses decrease the value of the net income and hence the reported equity also reduces. Fair values have played a crucial role in United States for more than half a century. The standards of accounting that allow or otherwise require fair value reporting have increased in a big way over the recent years. In 2006, a controversial and important new standard of accounting was announced by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) no. 157, which provides a more detailed guidance in assisting firms in the use of fair values. The applicability of this has in recent years been put into test by market conditions which were extreme. Fair value was used as early as the late nineteenth century where it was common for organizations to use appraised values in quantifying their capital assets. In other words it was the value that would be realized by their sale in the market. This exit value was also believed by the economists, to be the most appropriate in construction of financial statements. (See, among others, Diewert, 2005). However, the abuse of this accounting standard by managers eventually led to the enactment of more accounting standards that were more formal by the accounting profession. This led to the emergence of historical cost as the dominant standard for reporting the financial instruments; assets and liabilities. Despite this, fair value remained a preferred concept by many theorists in the field (Magnan, 2009, p. 191). For example, Staubus (1961) and Sterling (1970) argue in support of fair values in financial reporting (p 192), which is the realizable value of the financial instrument. The exit value in accounting was used as a default option when accounting for some assets, however, it re-entered the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Bioethical Principles in Medical Science Essay Example for Free

Bioethical Principles in Medical Science Essay The principlist approach to biomedical ethics is understood on the basis of two central theses. The first thesis is that moral principles are non-absolute and that they do not occur in a determinate order of precedence. This means that every single principle is prima facie. These prima facie principles are; beneficence, respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. The second central thesis, usually called the global applicability thesis, posits that the four prima facie principles derived from common morality make principlism universally applicable. Analysis of ethical questions based on the biomedical principles of ethics is central to moral reasoning while at the same time respects exigencies of circumstance and liberates pluralism (Beauchamp Childress 14; Herissone-Kelly 65). Since this application of ethical principles is sensitive to moral beliefs encountered in everyday lives, it forms the basis of ethics in biomedical practice. It acts as a guide to action even though the four principles do not operate in a determinate order of precedence. In attempting to discern the ethics of physician assisted suicide one central question comes into mind. Is assisted suicide morally justified? In a nutshell, assisted suicide or more specifically, physician assisted suicide, refers to a case where the patient has ended his life either with a lethal dose or any other medically provided instrument after the patient requested for the lethal dosage from the physician who provided the dosage for the specific reason of ending the life. The difference between euthanasia and assisted suicide is that in the case of euthanasia, it is the physician who administers the lethal dose or withdraws the life support system because the patient in question is unable to administer the same to him/herself. Thus, the difference lies in the difference in who makes the action that precedes death. In assisted suicide, it is the patient who acts last. The choice of taking the lethal dosage or pushing the button that will terminate life solely rests with the patient and they have the capacity to alter their decision before their actions become irreversible. Even though the physician plays a causal role in both; the patient kills him/herself in assisted suicide while in the latter, it is the physician who kills the patient. This difference creates an intrinsic moral difference between the two. This brings into question the principle of respect for autonomy. The moral principle of respect for autonomy refers to a patient’s freedom of liberty or choice interests. However, it should not be confused with an all-for-nothing phenomenon. Gradations of autonomy and its interpretation in different circumstances are variable. A patient’s autonomy can be interfered with when there is excessive control (too much interference with the patient’s decisions) or when there is too little interference (neglect of the patient). Respect for an individuals autonomy is also threatened in cases where an individual’s right contravenes another individual’s freedom of choice and their actions (Brent 40). With respect to assisted suicide, the patient in question having satisfied the qualifications of making an informed consent can request the causal assistance of the physician to carry out actions that directly lead to their death. In such a case, professional codes of ethics bind physicians to respect the patient’s rights to self determination by unobstructing the conditions for the operation of an autonomous action such as: intentionality, understanding, and the complete absence of any controlling influence. In a situation where all these conditions are met and the physician dutifully performs their causal roles, physician assisted suicide is ethically correct. This is so because so long as the patient’s rights are supported it automatically follows that ethical permissibility of assisted suicide is also granted (Weir 89; http://www. deathreference. com/). In cases whether the patient is suffering from a treatable clinical depression or dementia which impair the decision making capacity of the patient, the right to self determination do not apply (http://www. inclusiondaily. com/). The moral principle of Non maleficence hold that a person should not do harm. It specifically holds that one should have the capacity to discern actions that are morally harmful. However, there is controversy as determining the intention behind an action. At the same time, determining whether an intentional or unintentional action refrains from action harms or puts the subject at a risk of harm. The moral principle of beneficence entails the following obligations: to prevent harm, to eliminate harm, and to do good. These three conditions characterize the measures taken by medical practitioners to balance the components of risks, harms and benefits. Beneficence therefore encompasses professional, personal and societal obligations (Brent 41). The principle of beneficence largely builds on the foundational principle of non maleficence. In this case assisted suicide is ethically permissible on the basis of an individuals well being. It can be argued that in such a case, to promoting and protecting the patients well being may be contradictory to the patient’s right to self determination. However, this is not so. Life is often is perceived as being good and its value is a product of our pursuit of goods within life itself. In an assisted suicide scenario, a person who is fully competent to reach a decision decides that life sustaining treatments no longer has any benefit but has become a burden. Most of these patients are often critically ill, dying or in a very debilitated and severely compromised state. If such patients request the means to end their lives, it is in line with non maleficence or beneficence because such an act is value to the patient’s life. Unless if the patient is unable to reach a competent decision and the dictatorial authority transferred to a surrogate, the right of self determination stands and is not in contradiction to the principles of non maleficence and maleficence(Weir 90). Moreover, such a decision is only ethical if it does not infringe on the moral and professional values of the physician. Additionally, assisted suicide is an act of compassion that eliminates further suffering and pain. Refusal to grant the patient their claim or entitlement is akin to putting them to unbearable suffering. Finally, the moral principle of justice simply refers to fairness. It is the act of receiving ones due; entitlement or claim. Distributive justice concerns itself with how fairly benefits can be allocated and distributed. Basically, four considerations guide moral justice. For instance, an equal share, according to a persons need, according to a person’s effort, and lastly, according to societal contribution (Brent 42). Physician assisted suicide is supported by the moral principle of justice in the context of â€Å"treat like cases alike† (http://depts. washington. edu/). When competent but terminally ill patients request lethal dose medications or refuse life sustaining treatments with the sole purpose of hastening death, it is only just that they should be granted their claim. However, these arguments are only suitable when the ethics of assisted suicide is analyzed on a basis of the biomedical ethical principles. Works Cited BBC News. Assisted suicide danger claim. April 20, 2009. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/8008736. stm Beauchamp, Tom L, Childress, James F. Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford University Press, 2001; 1-23 Brent, Nancy J. Nurses and the law: a guide to principles and applications. 2nd Edition. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2000; 40-47 Reynolds, Dave. Assisted Suicides For Mental Illness, Too, Swiss Court Rules. Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide, Eugenics, Bioethics. Inclusion Daily Express. February 5, 2007. http://www. inclusiondaily. com/archives/07/02/05/020507sweuth. htm Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Bioethics. http://www. deathreference. com/A-Bi/Bioethics. html Harrison-Kelly, Peter. The Principlist approach to bioethics, and its stormy journey overseas. in, â€Å"Scratching the surface of bioethics†, By Matti Hayry, Tuija Takala. Rodopi Press, 2003; 65-72 Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ethics in Medicine. University of Washington School of Medicine. http://depts. washington. edu/bioethx/topics/pas. html Weir, Robert F. Physician-assisted suicide. Indiana University Press, 1997; 86-97

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Psychopathy and Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD) Essay -- What I

Stories of the ‘psychopath’ are often intriguing to individuals in the general population as they receive exhaustive media coverage and are the basis for many interesting story lines in books, television and movies. The idea of the ‘psychopath’ is usually misunderstood and merged with other dispositions such as Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD), but these concepts are two distinct entities. Defining a ‘psychopath’ is a difficult task. Frist, psychopathy is a trait and not a disorder (Strickland et al, 2013). Characterizing psychopathy using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual Fifth Edition (DSM-V) has demonstrated effective trait-based coverage in terms of psychopathy and its facets that are identifiable through the Personality Inventory for DSM-V (PID-V) (Strickland et al, 2013). The identification of psychopathy as a trait indicates that individuals with this specific trait possess patterns of thoughts, feelings or actions that are distinguishable. For example, the Five Factor Model (Costa and Wildiger, 2002) describes five broad dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. Individuals all possess some degree of these identifiable traits, however they are expressed in different comportments upon a continuum. Possessing the average trait has not historically bred problems (Costa and Wildiger, 2002) but, when individuals approach an extreme end of a trait (extremely low or extremely high) then there may be indication of some kind of personality disorder. Hence, the term psychopathy and ASPD are often used interchangeably as individuals that demonstrate extreme forms of psychopathy are often diagnosed with ASPD (Strickland et al, 2013). The DSM-V aims to correct this binder. The dimensional persona... ... Psychopathy Scores Predict Adolescent Inpatient Aggression. Assessment, 10(1), 102-112. Strickland, C., Drislane, L., Lucy, M., Krueger, R., & Patrick, C. (2013). Characterizing Psychopathy Using DSM-5 Personality Traits. Assessment, 20(3), 327-338 . Szalavitz, M. (n.d.). Why Do Some People Become Psychopaths?. MSN Healthy Living. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of abnormal psychology, 111(3), 436. Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute), [1999] 2 S.C.R. 625 World Health Organization. 2001b. Burden of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. (accessed March 21, 2008).

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Last Samurai Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The idea of honor is different to many people. The dictionary defines honor as, That which rightfully attracts esteem, respect, or consideration; self-respect; dignity; courage; fidelity; especially, excellence of character; high moral worth; virtue; nobleness; specifically, in men, integrity; uprightness; trustworthiness; in women, purity; chastity. [1913 Webster]. However in the film The Last Samurai, the idea of honor seems to differ between the different people in each culture.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Americans equate honor with how many battles have been won. Not necessarily how the battles are won. We are introduced to the idea of American culture changing the Japanese way by first being shown the Japanese buying advanced weaponry from the Americans. Nathan Algren, played by Tom Cruise was revered with utmost respect for his victories in the civil war and against the Indians. However through out those battles many innocent people were killed. These facts however did not stop the American government from awarding him many medals of Honor, and thus leading to his recruitment by the Japanese emperor to train his armies. No medals however could stop the nightmares that Algren would have every night as he replayed the dishonorable things he had done in past battles.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Japanese people were attempting to begin adapting to a western style of life. The government tried to take the samurai way of life out...

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Empress Wu’s rise to power is interesting

There is A Confucian dogma that pushes women ruling as â€Å"unnatural† (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008).   However, in China there lived one woman who rose to power. Wu Hou, also called Empress Wu Zetian, ruled China during the Tang dynasty, the only female to do so (2008). While some depict Empress Wu’s regime as autocracy, it could not be denied that she ruled China effectively, preserving the country’s diplomatic relationships with other nations (Hucker, 1975, p.143). Empress Wu’s rise to power is interesting. The Tang dynasty is described as a time when women experienced some freedom, at a time when women were not limited to being subservient (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). It was a period where women became part of cultural and political endeavors (2008).   Wu came from a noble family and thus was taught music, how to write and read Chinese classics (2008).   Her father was one of Emperor Kao- tsu’s supporters while her mother descended from the Sui royal family (Safra, 2002, p.90). When she was 13 years old, she was sent to Emperor Tai Tsung’s court to be a servant (2008). Soon, Wu became Emperor Tai Tsung’s favorite concubine. When the emperor died, Wu was removed from the palace, as customary (Hucker, 1975,b p.142). The emperor’s son, Kau-Tsung became the emperor at age 21 (2002). However, the new emperor, as fate would have it, was also enamored with Wu, giving him sons (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). Wu soon became the emperor’s favorite concubine and soon was hungry for power. Rumors have it that that Wu killed her own child and blamed Empress Wang (Kau- Tsung’s wife) of the crime (Walsh, 2003).   Kau-Tsung believed Wu and married her, making her the new empress (2008). Five years into their marriage, the emperor was struck with stroke and soon gave power to Empress Wu. When Emperor Kau-Tsung died, Empress Wu used her power to renounce the new emperors, her sons and by 690, Empress Wu was crowned as the Emperor of China (Walsh, 2003). She ruled China until 705 (Hucker, 1975, p.142). Empress Wu soon began her campaign to uplift the women in a relatively men-dominated environment. She ordered scholars to write biographies of prominent women (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). She also saw to it that her mother’s clan was given high positions in the political arena (2008). The new empress favored religion and symbolism. Rituals were changed during her reign (Safra, 2002, p.90).   Names of officials were even altered, and the emperor or empress, in her case, was dubbed with the new title â€Å"Heavenly Emperor† (p.90).   Empress Wu manipulated the government to follow her, employing informers and agents (p. 90). She made Buddhism as the preferred state religion (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). Empress Wu was able to engineer the Buddhist scripture into building a Ming T’ang or â€Å"Hall of Light†, a shrine to Heaven as depicted in the Classics (p. 90). She was even able to convince every prefecture to create a temple which alludes to Wu being an incarnation of Buddha (p.90). The empress’ given surname ‘Wu’ was also exploited. Everyone who had the same surname as the empress was exempted from paying taxes (p.90). In 690, Empress Wu changed the dynasty from T’ang to Chou (Safra, 2002,p. 90). She had become China’s female ruler. During Empress Wu’s reign, China was in the midst of foreign battles.   Despite being depicted as a dictator, Empress Wu was instrumental in China’s diplomatic relationships. Together with Kao-Tsung, Wu mediated in the Korean Civil War (Hucker, 1975,p.143). At that time, Koreans were able to dominate in the Korean state of Silla, they acknowledged Wu’s reign (p.143). When Empress Wu was 80 years old, her power had started to diminish. She was finally abdicated and the T’ang dynasty was restored (Safra, 2002,p. 91). Empress Wu is truly an interesting leader. For one, she is female. At a time when males where dominating the political arena, she rose to power. It is remarkable especially since Asian culture tends to be patriarchal and for a female to rule and succeed, that is exceptional. True, Empress Wu’s reign was plagued with intrigues and scandals.   She was a dictator, a usurper and while this is not new to some leaders, it is still rather surprising to find a woman who is such. That is not to say that only men can be dictators. Women can also be dictators but sometimes they simply do it subtly. Empress Wu was shrewd and she let the world knew it.   It is even shocking to discover that she may have murdered her own child just to fulfil her desire to become empress. Although this was never confirmed, the thought of parent harming his/her child is disturbing. It is something that people read in newspapers or see in the television now but to think that it happened way before it has become a norm, to say the least, it truly startling. Stories of leaders conning people to get what they want is normal, albeit wrong. This just goes to show that even during those times; power and greed were already present and destroying individuals. On a positive note, Empress Wu was one who paved the way for women empowerment. She used her position to uplift the status of women in her country.   It is interesting to know during a time when women were thought to be subservient; there rose a woman who wanted to change the norm. Leaders, regardless of gender, can learn something from Empress Wu- good traits and bad ones. References Empress Wu Zetian (2008). Retrieved 17 February 2008 Hucker, C. (1975). China’s Imperial Past. An Introduction to Chinese History And Culture. California: Stanford University Press. Safra, J. (Ed.). (2002). China. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.16, pp.90-91. Walsh, J. (2002). The Empress Wu Hou- China’s Only Female Ruler, Retrieved 17 February 2008, from   

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Law Enforcement Essays

Law Enforcement Essays Law Enforcement Essay Law Enforcement Essay Law Enforcement Name: Course: Institution: Instructor: Date: The historical development of police agencies Within North America, local law enforcement agencies have a core function of enforcement of laws. The history of police agencies dates back to the earlier Roman civilizations that were created solely for protecting the rulers from assassination and other threats. Much later in the Middle Ages around 1600 .D., the watch system that was applied in most communities where volunteers patrolled the streets and guarded cities from sunrise to sunset(Berg, 1998). The watch system consisted of close voluntary supervision of the streets and cities by the residents themselves. At the time, there were vigilante groups that took up watch at their premises to combat crime. The increasing level of lawlessness caused administrators such as Alfred the Great to come up with strategies like the pledge system in which all citizens were pledging to participate in any kind of community police work. The pledge system was an amended version of the frankpledge that was a system of tithing. Tithing involved collecting all able-bodied men into a group for behavior regulation purposes. If a tithe failed to apprehend an assailant, the whole group was responsible for compensating the injured party. Consequently, the alarm raised by the chief tithing-man that was popularly called the â€Å"hue and cry†. The frankpledge system aggregated ten tithings into a â€Å"hundred† who were under one constable. The duty of the constable was to mobilize the group of a hundred men and raise their forces. Such ten â€Å"hundreds† made up a â€Å"shire† that was supervised by a shire-reeve. Any exemption to this policy had to be ratified by the shire-reeve, the designated appointee to maintain peace. During the Industrial revolution, many race and class riots took place in Europe and America that challenged the workability of the night watch security. Day watchers were also overwhelmed. At some point, well-off individuals created a section of law enforcers called thief-takers. These were individuals who ere contracted to capture criminals. However, realizing their strategic positions, most thief-takers exploited their contracts to get rich. In return, they would protect the same criminals they were supposed to eliminate. All these failed attempts pitted England, New York and all other urban centers into corruption and lawlessness. Much later around 1750, more institutions that were effective were slowly edging out the watch system. Personal detectives like the famous Bow Street Runners and the Bobbies were well known for their prowess in tracking down criminals. Individuals like Sir Robert Peel introduced professionalism in the maintenance of law and order. These Peelian principles went on to form the foundation by which many police forces and agencies standardize their officers. Sir Robert proposed standards like discipline, appearance, and fair recruitment of police officers. (Beattie, 2012) This prompted administrators in New York City to start a full-time, independent and salaried police force in 1845. These new police officers had uniforms that distinguished them from the rest of the civilians. Apart from their uniforms, these police officers worked all day and night to regulate normal business disruptions in the city. They were armed with weapons and given the mandate to apprehend law-breakers. It is also during this time when state and federal police agencies began to emerge. The Secret Service and the IRS are the best examples in this period. Police agencies and their jurisdiction Jurisdiction can be defined as the area in which a local enforcement agency is restricted to in terms of exercise of power and operations. Typically, jurisdiction covers a specific geographical area that is restricted to a particular agency. Some agencies apply their powers at the country level for example Tobacco Firearms and Explosives, within a country or province or across a collection of many states for example Interpol. At this higher level involving many countries, such agencies mainly offer advisory and coordinative services to other domestic agencies. Law enforcement agencies that operate within a division in a country are referred to as local police. Law enforcement agencies have their jurisdictions divided according to geographical locations for administrative purposes. At the country level, the two agencies operating in the United States are either federal or national. Federal law enforcement agencies have different responsibilities. They are responsible for regulating immigration and border traffic, the protection of national infrastructure, national security and protection of important country officials like the head of state. Federal police agencies also have the regular police responsibilities for example maintenance of law and order alongside general safety. They however do not exercise their authority at the lower levels i.e. divisions. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I) is the prominent example of a federal agency in USA. State enforcement agencies operate within their specific states. Their main functions include investigations into criminal activities and regular patrols on the state’s borders. State police are part of the Department of Public Safety and work closely with the Bureau of Investigation found in the Attorney General’s office within the same state. Within these states, other enforcement divisions are not state police for instance campus police or departments of correction. These other agencies work hand in hand with the state police. The Alabama, North Dakota and Texas Highway patrols are some examples of state police.The lowest category of law enforcers is the county police. Their jurisdictions cover the different counties found within states. For smaller and less developed areas, the Sherriff’s office provides the security services for the people in a certain county. The Sherriff acts as both the county police and the sheriff in most situations. In some counties, municipal police operate under the sheriffs within the various counties. Many towns and cities have their own municipal agencies. The functions of this agency are quite similar to the federal agencies. The Las Vegas Metropolitan Police is one example.(Cunningham, Taylor Hallcrest Systems, 1985).The role of police agencies in contemporary societyPolice agencies have three main roles that stand out in the contemporary society. First, the maintenance of law and order in the society is the most important role played by the police. This mandate requires police to maintain peaceful environment by preventing behavior that may lead to any disturbance of tranquility. Under this function, police are also responsible for the detection and prevention of crime without which there would be chaos in the society (Cole Smith, 2004). The police also play a major role in law enforcement .The police exercise these powers whenever a law is violated. In such instances, the police have to identify the s uspect and apprehend them for further investigation.The Department of Justice and other similar branches in other governments rely heavily on the efficiency of the police to facilitate justice as well as safety. Lastly, police agencies provide different types of services to the public. These may include tourist guidance, civil education and providing disaster relief support. In more developed countries, police officers assist in roadside auto problems, finding lost property and residential security. At the national level, the federal police assist in maintaining national security. This includes deterring threats of terrorist attacks that have been a major issue for the United States.References Beattie, J. M. (2012). The first English detectives: The Bow Street Runners and the policing of London, 1750-1840. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Berg, B. L. (1991). Law enforcement: An introduction to police in society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cole, G. F., Smith, C. E. (2004). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. Cunningham, W. C., Taylor, T. H., Hallcrest Systems, Inc. (1985). The Hallcrest report: Private security and police in America. Portland, or: Chancellor Press.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Wasteland

The paper argues that the poem creates a sense of timelessness, not by ignoring chronology, but by telescoping it all together, thus underscoring humanity's ongoing part in the grand cycle of death and rebirth T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets symbolizes a great many things to do with what exists in the here and now, as well as what lives within the concepts of religious mysticism. Indeed, it reflects some of the most compelling of all written representations in literary history. The writer discusses the meaning and how the Four Quartets relate to one another succeeds in re-visioning an internal spirituality in terms of a personal quest, while Eliot does not succeed in this effort because of his reliance on dogma and externalities analyzing the symbolism of water in Eliot's landmark poem. It concludes that water, in the world of the Waste Land, stands for sustenance, healing, and faith, and for the orderly and proper progress of the universe; it is only through the restoration of balance that the Waste Land can be healed. essay examines the poem The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot. This poet believes that modern society lacks a vital sense of community and a spiritual center. In addition, Eliot asserts that human beings are isolated, and sexual relations have become sterile and meaningless.... Free Essays on Wasteland Free Essays on Wasteland The paper argues that the poem creates a sense of timelessness, not by ignoring chronology, but by telescoping it all together, thus underscoring humanity's ongoing part in the grand cycle of death and rebirth T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets symbolizes a great many things to do with what exists in the here and now, as well as what lives within the concepts of religious mysticism. Indeed, it reflects some of the most compelling of all written representations in literary history. The writer discusses the meaning and how the Four Quartets relate to one another succeeds in re-visioning an internal spirituality in terms of a personal quest, while Eliot does not succeed in this effort because of his reliance on dogma and externalities analyzing the symbolism of water in Eliot's landmark poem. It concludes that water, in the world of the Waste Land, stands for sustenance, healing, and faith, and for the orderly and proper progress of the universe; it is only through the restoration of balance that the Waste Land can be healed. essay examines the poem The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot. This poet believes that modern society lacks a vital sense of community and a spiritual center. In addition, Eliot asserts that human beings are isolated, and sexual relations have become sterile and meaningless....

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How To Use Blog Comments For Content Marketing

How To Use Blog Comments For Content Marketing If youve been visiting some of the bigger blogs lately, youll notice an interesting trend: no more blog comments. Copyblogger  and  Michael Hyatt  are a couple  of the more popular bloggers who have pulled comments from their blogs. Other bloggers have entered the debate on why you should and shouldnt include comments with blog posts, or even the value of participating in blog comment sections. Weve even entered the fray, coming out with 10 reasons to have blog comments. What if we took a different look at the venerable blog comment tradition and viewed it as a form of content marketing? In some way, taking part in a blog comment section  is of similar  quality of some of the most common venues of content marketing. How To Use #Blog Comments To Become A Better Content Marketer  via @JulieNeidlinger Blog comment systems are much different than they used to be. Systems like Disqus and Livefyre act like a social network. Each user has a profile, and a record of all their comments across all the blogs theyve commented on that use these systems. Users can follow profiles, and vote on comments that they deem as valuable. Blog comments can also be fueled by social networks themselves, such as Facebook or Google+. In this way, participating in blog comments is quite similar as participating on a social network Blog Comments To Network And Connect Old school bloggers who were blogging years ago will fondly remember (and in some cases, not so fondly) the many connections they made in blog comment sections. Before there was social media, a blog comment section was the place to talk about a blog post. If you wanted to share it, you brought it back to your blog and packaged it for your readers. Now, social media has brought that to an end somewhat. For most blogs, the comment sections aren't as active, nor are they used the same way. Nevertheless, participating in a blog comment section is a way to find new bloggers to follow, and a way for them to find you. It also makes sense that you would meet and converse with people in the comments of a blog on a topic you were both interested in when otherwise, you'd not have connected. Blogs now are particularly niche-focused, making it more likely that you will meet relevant people you ought to network and connect with in the comments. You may never see them, otherwise, in social media. You might not end up in the same forum as they. But you are likely reading the same top blogs. Use #blog comments to connect with peers. Treat it like #socialmedia with unique  insights.Blog Comments For Generating Ideas A blog comment section is a fabulous place to get ideas for your next post. In fact, I've even written posts in response to discussions I've had in a blog comment section when I feel as if I need to flesh out my thoughts in greater detail. Then, once the post is finished, I go back to the discussion I was having and share the link and note that I wrote about it on my blog. As a blogger, the conversations happening in a blog comments section reveal more about what people want to read about than any daily perusal of your RSS feed reader. A feed reader tells you what other bloggers think ought to be written. A blog comment section has the questions and thoughts people are telling you they want written. When we published a post called How To Actually Plan Your Blog And Save A Ton Of Time, Ella had a great question for us. We used that inspiration from her blog comment to write a post called How To Start A Blog When You Have Absolutely No Audience to answer her question (and then we let Ella know when it launched). This is particularly the case on a popular industry blog, where people are turning to the expert for help. They will ask for clarification and help. Why not write a post and be that help? Pay attention to the words other blog commenters are using when they ask questions or comment, so that you use those same words in your own blog posts. Use #blog comments to find your best blog ideas. #bloggingBlog Comments Can Build Your Reputation There are some content marketers who don't actually  have a blog. They write on social media, such as Google+, participate in niche forums, or they focus their efforts on being a serious blog commenter. They build a reputation as an expert based on what they say in these non-blog locations. Reputation building can happen off of your blog. When people start to see your name across blocks in your industry, and see that you are leaving great comments, they remember. Your blog comments are building your reputation as someone with knowledge and expertise. People take notice. It may lead to requests for guest blog posts, an interview, or other avenues to participate in content marketing. Frankly, a knowledgeable post stands out in a blog comment section in this day and age. There is such a thing as building a bad reputation, of course.  One thing I do, when reading a cantankerous comment on a blog, is click on the commenter's name. If it is a comment system such as Disqus, I can quickly see what kind of comments they generally leave, and I assign them a reputation. Some people only leave comments to say disagreeable things. Even if they have their own blog and it is filled with great content, I'm not going to bother. The comments you are leaving are building your reputation. Make it a good one that shows you are knowledgeable and even-handed, instead of a disagreeable jerk with little to add to the conversation. Write knowledgeable and even-handed #blog comments, instead of being a disagreeable jerk.Blog Comments As Your Side Blog Depending upon how thoughtful and how much time you put in the comments section of a blog (going beyond the not-so-helpful "great post!"), you could view a blog comments section as a secondary method for blogging. We've talked about syndicating and repurposing your content on sites such as, LinkedIn, et. al. In a sense, the blog comment section of a high-traffic blog can do some of the same. If you have written a great post that would really fit into the conversation in a comments section of a blog post, rework your blog post into a summary and share it in the comments section. This is better than simply saying "I wrote a post about this:" because people are tired of spammers leaving links without explanation in the comment section. Getting your content on Medium and LinkedIn works well because you expose it to a new audience. The same goes for a blog comment section, as long as you trim it down and provide a tidy quick-read summary. If you want to include the link at the end, you might say "I've talked about this in a bit more detail on my own blog" and use an inline link so it is visually appealing and seems less like link spam. Provide a unique perspective in #blog comments and link to a post to  flesh out the idea.Blog Comments As Your Daily Routine Most content marketers have a particular daily routine that they use to get ideas, stay active, and stay knowledgeable in their niche. These routines usually involve going through the day's RSS feeds in a reader, planning upcoming content on their editorial calendar, responding to social media, and so on. Why wouldn't you also block out time to leave one or two long comments on relevant blogs? That ought to be a part of your regular routine, too, if you are trying to build a reputation and a following. We talk a lot about long-form blog posts. Let's consider its cousin: long-form blog comment. You don't have to write a 1,000 word blog comment every day, but you can certainly leave a few paragraphs of relevant content to  meet other commenters and earn the appreciation of the blog owner where you left your comment.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Using Gene Therapy as a Treatment for Cancer - Developments and Future Literature review

Using Gene Therapy as a Treatment for Cancer - Developments and Future Prospects - Literature review Example Cancer mainly affects human organs including lung, prostate, and bone. Breast cancer is common in females. Although scientists have proposed a series of therapies that can improve patient outcomes, definitive cure for cancer has not been developed yet. Over the last decade, researchers gave more emphasis on gene therapy development as they believed that this treatment method would effectively contribute to cancer prevention. The process of gene therapy is mainly concerned with the modification or alteration of genetic material such as genes and DNA, which play a notable role in determining the characteristic traits of individuals. Different gene therapy methods mainly focus on three basic approaches and they are destruction of cancerous cells, prevention of the growth of cancerous cells, and improvement of normal cells’ ability to fight against the affected cells. In gene therapy, viruses are used to replace cancerous cells instead of inserting genes directly into the patient’s body. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has banned the use of retroviruses since experiments showed that this virus may cause the development of other diseases like leukemia. By the end of 2010, more than 1060 gene therapy protocols have been suggested or practiced for various cancers; this figure constitutes over 64% of all gene therapy experiments in humans in the United States. Although, majority of such trials reported modest therapeutic responses, the clinical efficacy of such practices is still to be proven. The major disadvantage of gene therapy method is the possibility of infection of the healthy cells attribu ted to the viruses used for gene delivery. Introduction The history of gene therapy started during the beginning of the 1960’s. In the opinion of Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell &Farrell (2010, p. 721), gene therapy is a complicated medical procedure by which genes within an individual’s cells and biological tissues are altered, and removed in order to treat diseases. In other words, the gene therapy intends to correct a genetic mutation by the addition, alteration, or removal of specific genes. By the application of gene therapy, the restored cells get the proper instructions for building proteins and thereby the body mechanisms return to the normal state. In 1970, Stanfield Rogers, an American doctor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, tried to apply gene therapy as a method to treat two sisters who had suffered from a genetic disorder called argininemia (‘History of gene therapy’ 2011). Although, Rogers’ effort was unsuccessful, it is considered as a m ilestone in the history of gene therapy development. By the end of 1977, scientists could successfully apply gene therapy techniques to deliver a gene into the cells of mammals (‘Gene therapy/ human genome project/ history of gene therapy/ future of gene therapy’ n.d). As Jain (2000, pp. 3-4) points out, the year 1989 witnessed tremendous improvements in gene therapy development when scientists began to research the scope of gene therapy in cancer treatment. A team of researchers including, Drs. Kenneth Culver, W. French Anderson, Michael Blaese, and Steven Rosenberg conducted a study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the gene therapy process in cancer patients. The research team â€Å"grew tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL cells) from people with the deadly cancer malignant melanoma, and then they engineered a virus to put a DNA market into those cells† (‘Gene therapy’ n.d). This experiment assisted the researchers to conclude two things : TIL cells can be applied to treat cancer and the engineered virus can effectively and safely work in humans. (Baruch 2005) tells that in 1990, American doctor W. French Anderson conducted a detailed research on a

Friday, October 18, 2019

After the tan lines have aded Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

After the tan lines have aded - Essay Example Cancer is probably the most alarming illness that can claim thousands of lives in just a year. While some may be cured with the use of the latest technologies, others are just too severe that several treatments are not an assurance that a person will be able to live a normal life after undergoing a number of therapies and medicine intakes. So, should indoor tanning be banned for minorsThere are several factors which contribute to having a skin cancer and perhaps the most common and well known cause of it is too much exposure in the sun. It is not new to almost everyone that the sun's ray is at its strongest from 10:00 AM until 4:00 PM so it is advisable that if one is going to go outside between the said periods of time, it is recommended to apply sunscreen, wear a hat or even sun glasses to protect the eyes. Nevertheless, in a recent survey conducted by American Academy of Dermatology, over 10,000 young people ages 12-18 from all 50 states, found that the use of sunscreen on sunny d ays was practiced by only 34.4 percent. The said survey also discovered that natural sunlight wasn't the only significant source of UV exposure for teens nowadays. Approximately 10 percent of teens had used tanning beds. ( is "IN", or so what these teens thought. And who does not want a sun-kissed look everyday The look of summer never fails to leave a sexy impression on almost everyone that girls of any age would do almost anything just to get that "just got from the beach" look. Almost any thing that they are even willing to take their lives is at risk. With indoor tanning, those who wish to achieve a bronze look don't need to wait for summer to come or pray for a good weather for sun bathing. Because anytime of the day, regardless of the climate and weather, one can obtain a perfect tan she has always wanted by just merely going to a tanning salon. However, although indoor tanning is a booming business in the United States, generating estimated revenues in excess of $5 billion a year, several skin specialists, including WHO (World Health Organization) says tanning beds could be responsible for an epidemic of skin cancer in the future because teens love to tan. ( In Canada, the National Cancer Institute estimated that doctors will detect more than 80,000 skin cancer cases, and up to 5,000 of those will be melanoma. ( Malignant melanoma is a less common, but a potentially deadly, type of skin cancer. Melanoma has been linked to intense intermittent and long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation during childhood or the teenage years, ( and an awful truth is that public health officials in Ontario, Canada learned that tanning salons were even catering to children as young as eight. ( In light with this, this study will find out if indoor tanning is one of the main causes of skin cancer of minors and if there are other side effects of this. Also, this study will give rise to a supposition if it is recommended to be used by people who are below 18 years of age. This will also discuss further the current Bylaw Regulating Tanning Facilities and if this law is enough to defend the teenagers out there on the possible hazards of indoor tanning. Basking under the sun has been one of the favorite past times of the people especially during summer. Strolling along the beach in a stunning bikini and a perfect tan line to boot never fails to get a second glance from anyone. Nowadays, being tan is already becoming a fashion statement that almost everyone is dying to achieve the sexy tan lines they get from

Bermuda Triangle Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Bermuda Triangle - Research Paper Example A body of water that seems to take human sacrifices, making both man and machine disappear as they trek across its waters. Be it by air or sea, it seems that there is an unnatural force existing in that area that our modern abilities cannot overcome. The Bermuda Triangle has thus, remained a mystery for many decades now. However, time has not satiated man's quest to explain the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle. Rather, it has only fed his desire to conquer one of the most inexplicable places on our planet. Therefore, the questions continues to remain â€Å"What is the Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle?†. There have actually been a number of myths developing around the strange and mysterious disappearance that have happened in the area that can be traced all the way back to the time of Columbus and the discovery of the New World. Historically, there have been a long line of military and private vessels that have gone missing within the triangle area, the most popular disappearance being that of the fame female pilot Amelia Earhart. Most recently however, famed fashion designer Vittorio Missoni was also reported to have disappeared during a flight that took his plane directly into the triangle's path (Speigel, Lee â€Å"Vittorio Missoni's Disappearance Gives Rise to New Fears of Bermuda Triangle Worldwide†). ... on in the North Atlantic Ocean that forms a triangle using the bodies of water located within three key points; Miami, Florida, Bermuda, and San Juan, Puerto Rico (â€Å"The Bermuda Triangle†). When one views the and traces these location points on a current world map, one will easily notice the triangle formation that exists within the three. It is this very specific shape of the area that led to the name Bermuda Triangle, with Bermuda being the central point between the three. Although most popularly known as the Bermuda Triangle by most people, the name was never made official for the area. In fact, there is still a huge scientific and social debate as to whether the Bermuda Triangle actually exists or not. The area has not even been cordoned off ala Area 51. Instead, the stretch of water occupied by these points continue to be a source of air and water traffic for the region. There have been no reports of extra precautions being undertaken such as higher insurance premiums or vessel surveillance when ships and planes pass through the area. Agrosy Magazine was the first magazine to have used the term â€Å"Bermuda Triangle† in an article written by Vincent H. Gaddis in 1964. Gaddis is documented in the magazine article as being the first person to use the term in making a publicly claim that ships and planes disappeared under mysterious circumstances within this sea area. However, Fate Magazine in 1952 published the first documented claim that the area seemed to be infested with strange accidents (â€Å"The â€Å"Mystery† of the Bermuda Triangle†). These published claims helped fuel the various theories that added to the mystery and interest of the public in learning more about what lay beneath the mysterious waters. Covering an area of over 500,000 square miles, the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Counter Terrorism Operations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Counter Terrorism Operations - Essay Example If you ask, none can track my past as the commander of ‘xxx’ jihadist organization because I possess a fake personal profile (including the information disclosed in my passport). By the by, the mission authorized upon me is to conduct a bomb blast in Edinburgh, Scotland. After conducting thorough research, I did attain a conclusion that I can organize the plot with ease because counter terrorism planning in Edinburgh is comparatively ineffective. Vick (2002) stated that, â€Å"In the past, Special Operations Forces accomplished the active counterterrorism mission; conventional forces protected themselves against terrorism and provided security to civilian activities† (p.61). The most important measure to protect myself from counter terrorism operations is that I am an international tourist. I am so interested in performing arts and I wish to visit the Edinburgh International Festival. Can anyone read my mind and unearth my aim? No. As an international citizen, I c an visit Edinburgh as an international tourist, who is deeply interested in performing arts. But my aim is to warn the international community by conducting an explosion at ‘The Hub’. I am aware of the fact that the month of August is the best possible opportunity for me to conduct an explosion in Edinburgh. For instance, in August, the international tourists flow to Edinburgh to visit the Edinburgh International Festival. ... This will be most helpful for me to have direct involvement in the proposed operation. To be specific, my aim is to conduct a serial bomb blast at ‘The hub’. One can see that serial blasts defeat the disaster mitigation measures adopted by the governments. To be specific, serial blasts can kill more people and can attract international attention. Within this scenario, the government will become helpless. I selected 21 of August as the date for the proposed explosion. I did select this date because I need a little bit time to settle myself in Edinburgh. The grass root level reason behind my aim to conduct a serial bomb blast in Edinburgh is interconnected with our decision to terrorize Europe and America. Kepel (2006) opined that, â€Å"The terrorism of September 11 was above all a provocation-albeit a provocation of gigantic proportions† (p.4). Within the context of our organization, the ultimate authority (say, the leader) does not allow anyone to know more about secret plans. This preventive measure is generally adopted by our leadership to operate from distant places. Besides, this indirect involvement of our leader can prevent the governments from adopting counter-terrorism measures. On the other side, we are aware of the different tactics made use by the governments. Here, the military cannot find out any evidence on my presence because my real identity is hidden under the mask of an international tourist. In short, the reason behind the proposed bomb blast is to exhibit the strength of our organization. As pointed out earlier, my aim is to make use of the Edinburgh International Festival as a medium to create terror among the world nations. In Edinburgh, I will not make use of any specific place for boarding and lodging because this will help the

Business Culture of Albania and Italy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Culture of Albania and Italy - Essay Example The researcher states that language is regarded as an important part of business dealings as communication is the backbone of successful business negotiations. In case of Albania, it has been found that most government officials speak English, but the same thing cannot be said about people employed in the private sector. Use of interpreters or translators is a commonplace business practice. In case of Italy, English is also the most commonly spoken foreign language. In Italy, use of body language is as important as hand gestures and personal contacts are as dominant as speech. Avoiding excessive use of body language may be considered as an unfriendly attitude, which can, therefore, harm the business. This practice is not found in Albania. Given the difference in the official language of the two countries, need for translators will be inevitable to carry business if English is not spoken. In this case, it can be stated that misinterpretations of non-verbal gestures like, hand gestures , may act as severe intercultural communication barrier between Italy and Albania as Italians tend to use more such gestures. It has been observed that time is not considered to be an important parameter in case of Albania, but is quite important for Italy. Punctuality has been regarded as an important parameter in inter-cultural business. This is because punctuality has the notable influence on the social behavior. It is noticed that Italians expect a formal explanation if there is any delay in the business meeting and such a habit is condemnable. However, the social attitude of people in Albania makes punctuality an obsolete requirement. So, in case of business dealings between companies of these countries, it is important for the Albanians to be more particular about the time factor. Â  

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Counter Terrorism Operations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Counter Terrorism Operations - Essay Example If you ask, none can track my past as the commander of ‘xxx’ jihadist organization because I possess a fake personal profile (including the information disclosed in my passport). By the by, the mission authorized upon me is to conduct a bomb blast in Edinburgh, Scotland. After conducting thorough research, I did attain a conclusion that I can organize the plot with ease because counter terrorism planning in Edinburgh is comparatively ineffective. Vick (2002) stated that, â€Å"In the past, Special Operations Forces accomplished the active counterterrorism mission; conventional forces protected themselves against terrorism and provided security to civilian activities† (p.61). The most important measure to protect myself from counter terrorism operations is that I am an international tourist. I am so interested in performing arts and I wish to visit the Edinburgh International Festival. Can anyone read my mind and unearth my aim? No. As an international citizen, I c an visit Edinburgh as an international tourist, who is deeply interested in performing arts. But my aim is to warn the international community by conducting an explosion at ‘The Hub’. I am aware of the fact that the month of August is the best possible opportunity for me to conduct an explosion in Edinburgh. For instance, in August, the international tourists flow to Edinburgh to visit the Edinburgh International Festival. ... This will be most helpful for me to have direct involvement in the proposed operation. To be specific, my aim is to conduct a serial bomb blast at ‘The hub’. One can see that serial blasts defeat the disaster mitigation measures adopted by the governments. To be specific, serial blasts can kill more people and can attract international attention. Within this scenario, the government will become helpless. I selected 21 of August as the date for the proposed explosion. I did select this date because I need a little bit time to settle myself in Edinburgh. The grass root level reason behind my aim to conduct a serial bomb blast in Edinburgh is interconnected with our decision to terrorize Europe and America. Kepel (2006) opined that, â€Å"The terrorism of September 11 was above all a provocation-albeit a provocation of gigantic proportions† (p.4). Within the context of our organization, the ultimate authority (say, the leader) does not allow anyone to know more about secret plans. This preventive measure is generally adopted by our leadership to operate from distant places. Besides, this indirect involvement of our leader can prevent the governments from adopting counter-terrorism measures. On the other side, we are aware of the different tactics made use by the governments. Here, the military cannot find out any evidence on my presence because my real identity is hidden under the mask of an international tourist. In short, the reason behind the proposed bomb blast is to exhibit the strength of our organization. As pointed out earlier, my aim is to make use of the Edinburgh International Festival as a medium to create terror among the world nations. In Edinburgh, I will not make use of any specific place for boarding and lodging because this will help the

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What were the causes of the Global Financial Crisis which began in Essay

What were the causes of the Global Financial Crisis which began in 2008 - Essay Example Mortgage capital expansion based policy that took upon the local industries such as housing, small to medium scale business activities led to an unprecedented environment and accumulation of artificial bubble. It was early in 2007 when the high risk mortgages saw an unusual trend in the market existence in the form of defaulting initiation to the business activity set the market on negative trends and footings leading on to massive economic strangulation in next year or so. Initial normalcy and relatively lower interest rates were another contributing factor that resulted in the upward pressure on the industry as well as the private lending agencies and entities being forced to increase the rates of interest subject to the external market and negative values by that time towards mid 2008. Mortgage backed security (M.B.S) was another mechanism and aiding element which lead to the stiffening of the market and overall mood. The second factor that contributed to the global recession was the element of securitization of the mortgages. It has been termed as the contributing factor which led to reduced certainty within the market trends and increased trends of risk. Introduction of concepts and policies such as Corporate loan securitization led to an initial let off to the investors and banking sector businesses that were initially indebted in small scale values, yet the long term impacts would show up in times ahead which did so in the most frightening form in span of less than five years from after 2002-2003. The fact that the American government had been following a relatively non consistent trend and pattern of loan handling made the picture relatively further murky. The practices such as collateralized loan obligation(C-L-O), was one similar practice of the United States government and banking policies which lead to increased debt values. The values initially were limited to less than 25 billion dollars, in less than five

English commentary creative writing Essay Example for Free

English commentary creative writing Essay I based the beginning of my story on a physical but also mental journey a man goes on while he is on his own hitchhiking home. I felt this was suitable for the topic journeys and pilgrimages which also liked in with the book Chaucer. As it is the beginning of a story the audience could really be any age. As it is a piece to entertain I would say it is suited better for the young. The purpose of my story was to entertain people, but also informing people about how one man is able to hitchhike. In order for me to write a story about hitchhiking I had to do some research into the topic. I found a book called round Ireland with a fridge by Tony Hawks which really inspired me and helped me grasp the language technique to use in order to entertain. To think in with Chaucer and the way he writes I have used stereotypes in my writing, for example I have does the typical blond as being stupid and naive. I have also used the idea about how the people in Chaucer went on a journey. The man I write about goes on a journey by himself from Lancashire back to Bristol, in which he also finds himself and learns a lot more about the world around him. I wanted to portray the man as a typical Bristol lad, with a slight arrogant edge. In order to do this I had to use a slight sarcastic tone of voice which I hoped would also entertain the readers. I also used phonetic lexis to help create an idiolect of the man. I used a Bristol accent and changed words like alright to ite and also ya instead of you. Which changing his dialect to fit his accent I also done this with other characters in the story, for example the Yorkshire girl he meets. For instance when she says Wheor are yee headin creates a sense of her accent to the readers. The language I used was very informal and personal. It was from the point of view from a man writing himself so the tone was very calm but at times comical. The structure was the usual story telling layout, with several small and large paragraphs, with a wide range of short sentences to add emotion and feeling to the man. Okay, maybe not.(after a line about wanting to fulfil his life) is an example of the idiolect I used from him, and shows the way he comes across as a simple man but with a funny entertaining side. I also linked my writing to The Road by Cormac McCarthy. I did this by using the disaster of the father in the road as a starting point of describing the man and his journey hitchhiking with so little and all by himself.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Post Stroke Depression Health And Social Care Essay

Post Stroke Depression Health And Social Care Essay Stroke is considered to be one of the most devastating vascular events (Beekman et al 1998) which can cause death. The patients who survive are developing physical impairment. This impairment can make the patients disable or dependent. As a result of loss of functional activity and normal life style, the stroke survivors may also develop psychosocial disorders. The most common disorders among stroke survivors are depression, anxiety, impatience, impulsivity, insensitivity toward others, poor social perception, memory disabilities, apathy, irritability, and eating disturbance (Barker-Collo 2007, Barskova et al 2006, Bour et al 2009). In my research, I will focus more on the prevalence of post stroke depression in the Arab world. I will also investigate the QOL among the Arabic stroke survivors and the factors that influence their mental health and their QOL. Stroke, which also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a neurological disorder that results from blood vessels disease (Carr et al, 242). It is caused by a sudden block of blood from flowing to brain leading to irreversible tissue damage result from thrombotic, embolic, or hemorrhagic events (Robinson et al 2010). There are two types of stroke: occlusive and hemorrhage. Occlusive stroke results from closure of a blood vessel while the hemorrhage is due to bleeding from a vessel. It is considered to be a third killer in the world after coronary heart disease and cancer and it is the most cause of disability among people who living in their own homes (Carr et al, 243). In the united state, Europe, and Australia, approximately 400 person per 100,000 populations over age 45 have a stroke (Bruce et al 2005). About 20% of stroke patients die within the first month of onset (Carr et al, 244). However, the reminding 80% of stroke patients can survive with medical management and rehabil itation. The medical management depends on the type of lesion (Carr et al, 245). Surgery is recommended for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, well-defined carotid disease, and good surgical risks (Carr et al, 246). To reduce the muscle spasm, pain, and posture that interfere with patients functions, the patients are injected with botulinum toxin into the muscles (Bruce et al. 2005). After the patients are stable medically, they commence active rehabilitation to prevent secondary physical, emotional, and intellectual deterioration (Carr et al 247). The rehabilitation team of stroke survivors usually consists of the followings: physician, nurse, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, social worker, and psychologist. Psychosocial issue: The clinical picture of the stroke patient is complex and varied between physical and psychological disorder. To insure the patient acceptance to different levels of care, it is important for all health care providers to communicate with information about patients moods, general symptoms, and worries and concerns about their own health as well as their neurological handicaps, treatments, and co-morbidity (Skaner et al, 2007). The psychiatric complications of stroke include a higher frequency of depressed mood, anxiety, memory disabilities, apathy, irritability, impatience, impulsivity, poor social perception and insensitivity toward others, and eating disturbance(Bour et al 2009 , Barskova et al 2006). Fatigue and sadness are the most common symptoms and 39% of patients always felt tired that is associated with feeling of depression(Skaner et al 2007). Depression Depression is affective disorder characterized by intense feelings of sadness, hopelessness, despair and the inability to experience pleasure in usual activities(Rang et al 2007).It is more common with left anterior hemisphere injury (Robinson et al 2010). It is considered to be significant risk factors for increase death within 7 years from date of onset (Robinson et al 2010). Every year there is 5000,000 new strokes in United State. Approximate 150,000 of them develop depression in the first year of post stroke (Elis et al 2010). The depressed patients complain from loss of interest, impaired ADL, psychomotor impairment, and gastro-intestinal complaints (Bour et al 2009). Management of Depression: The treatment of these symptoms can be established by pharmacotherapy and Non-pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy may include the followings: imipramine, phenelzine, and fluoxetine which have some side effects on patients. It can cause nausea, anxiety, insomnia, weight loss tremor, drowsiness, and orthostatic hypotension (Rang et al 2007). The non-pharmacotherapy can include aerobic exercises and stretching (Foley et al 2008). Assessment tools: Despite of previous symptoms, the diagnosis of depression in stroke patients is difficult because of overlap of somatic and neurocognitive symptoms directly related to the cerebral damage of stroke and the symptoms of a depressive episode (coster et al 2005). However, the examiner can observe some behavior or use some instrument to judge if the patient is depressed or not (Robinsion et al 2010). The behaviors include: difficulty falling asleep, waking up early in the morning, not eating, losing weight, frequent tearfulness, social withdrawal, or acts as self-harm(Robinsion et al 2010). Whereas, the instruments include Montgomery Asberg depression rating scale (Farner et al 2009), Mooddepression questionnaire, and Becks depression scale (Cohen 2007). Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale is an assessment tool that measure psychological symptoms of depression as symptoms that can affect physical function. Snaith et al defined four degree of depression severity and recognize the patient as a depressed if the score more than 6 in this scale (Sagen et al 2009). Because it is valid and reliable, it can be used in assess treatment outcome and can also used in research (Zimmerman et al 2004). Another scale is Becks depression scale which was designed by Beck, Rush, Shaw, and Emery (Cohen 2007). The scale, which is a questionnaire, consists of 21groups of statements. The patient selects the most statement that best describes hisher feeling past 2 weeks (Questionnaire form). The patient is considered as a minimal depressed if the scale range between 0-13, mild depressed if range between 14-19, moderate depressed if range between 20-28, and sever depressed if range between 29-63(Barker-Collo 2007). It is valid and reliable measurement and (Beck et al 2002) it translated to Arabic to use in assessment and research (Abdel-Khalek et al 1998). Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of life (MANSA), which is the LQLP modified and brief version, is another assessment tool (Priebe et al 1999). It is used to measure quality of life of people with mental illness and physical disability (Eklund et al 2006). It is administered as a structured interview and consists of three sections (Priebe et al 1999). First section is about personal details: date of birth, gender, ethnic origin, and diagnosis. Section 2 contains details that can be varying over time: education, employment status, monthly income, state benefits, and living situation (Priebe et al 1999). The last section covers 16 quality of life domains which are work, finances, social relations, leisure, living situation, safety, family relations, sexual relations, and health. Fourteen domains have one item and the reminders two have two domains. These domains are health which assessed as physical health and psychological health and living situation: satisfaction with housing a nd living with someone or alone. Satisfaction scale are rated on 7-point rating scales started with couldnt be worse and ended with couldnt be better. This tool is reliable and valid and has good internal consistency (Eklund et al 2006). One further measure instrument is Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) which is self rating tool. This instrument is used to assess emotional competencies such as: empathy, social initiative, and communication of ones own emotional states through 30 items. Its items are divided in four domains which are activities of daily living, emotional, interpersonal, and cognition. It is designed to measure patients mental and physical status after traumatic brain injury. Later on, it is used with stroke patients also. It is valid and reliable tool that can be used with stroke (Barskova et al 2006). Literature Review Stroke is the third cause of death in the world (Carr et al, 243). It is lead to disability and restricts activity of daily living. As a result of these physical problems, the patients can develop many psychological issues. Depression is considered to be one of these problems. Many studies show that 19.3% among hospitalized patients can develop post stroke depression and 23.3% among outpatients (Robinson 2003) .Here I mention some of studies that were done on post stroke depression. Townsend and his colleges (2010) did a study to evaluate the relationship between the acceptance of disabilities and depression following stroke. Ninety eight patients who were diagnosed with a stroke before one month and had no cognitive impairment or aphasia participated in this study. Twenty two of them had had a prior stroke. However, only 81 of participants were followed up nine months post stroke. The researchers used a prospective cohort mixed design with them. All participants participated in structured interview which yielded quantitative data one month after stroke. It included diagnostic type interview for depression and self report scale to measure disability and personal beliefs about accepting disability. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. In addition, they used National Institute for Health Stroke Severity Scale to measure stroke severity, Barthel In dex to measured personal activities of daily living, reverse scored Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale to measure disability in extended activities of daily living, and adapted version of eight-item Acceptance of Illness Questionnaire to measure non-acceptance of disability. This structured interview was repeated after nine months of onset. In addition, there was semi-structure interview done in the first month of onset and only sixty participants participated in this interview. It included open-ended questions about patients concerns and it was used to extract thoughts and feeling about their condition. The researchers found that for every three stroke patient one of them complained from depression. In their sample, 29 of 89 (33%) patient developed depression one month after stroke, while 24 of 81 (30%) developed depression after nine months. They also found that there is no relationship between disability and depression or no physiological relationship. The non acceptance of disability, or psychological issue, has been the cause of post stroke depression. The depressed participant described themselves as useless and inadequate. Skaner and his collages (2007) aimed to investigate the self rated health after stroke and the prevalence of symptoms of depression and general symptoms three and twelve months of onset. Their study included 145 patients (69 were men and 76 were women) with a first -ever stroke and their mean age was 73.3 years. The participants were classified according to Katz ADL Index into seven groups, A-G, to assess the patients functional level. The A refer to patients that had no need of help, and patients in G are dependant and the help is necessary for them. They received questionnaires from the researchers to assess their self -rated health, symptoms of depression, and general symptoms. Self-rating of health was assessed by Goteborg Quality of life Instrument (GQLI). The same instrument was used to assess the prevalence of general symptoms which covered six different symptoms: mental, gastro-intestinal/urinary, musculoskeletal, metabolic, cardio-pulmonary and head/miscellaneous. The preval ence of depression symptoms were evaluated by Montgomery Depression Rating Scale which includes nine items: mood, feeling of unease, sleep, appetite, ability to concentrate, initiative, emotional involvement, pessimism, and zest for life. In this study the researchers compared the patients situation three and twelve months after stroke and they found that more than half of patients suffered from symptoms of depression with no significant change frequency between 3 and 12 months. The most common general symptoms after 3 months were reported by patients were fatigue 69%, sadness 58%, pain in legs 52%, dizziness 48%, and irritability 46%. While the most common symptoms after 12 months were fatigue 58%, impaired hearing 49%, pain the joints 49%, sadness 46%, and pain in the legs 45%. Barker-Collo (2007) examined the prevalence of depression and anxiety after stroke. He also investigated the relationship between depression and anxiety with age, gender, hemisphere of lesion, functional independence, and cognitive functioning. He included 73 patients who were diagnoses of stroke three months before. Of the participants, 40 were males and 33 were females with a mean age of 51.7 years. Their CT scans showed that 31 of them had left hemisphere damage and 33 were right hemisphere damage. The researcher used many measurement tools to get the results. He used Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depression. BDI-II is contain 21 four-choice statements and its total score ranges from 0 to 63. Participants selected the better choice that descripts their emotional and vegetative symptoms in the past two weeks. According to this scale, result between 0-13 is considered to be minimal depression, 14-19 is mild, 20-28 is moderate, and 29-63 is severe. The researcher also used Beck Anxiety Inventory to examine the anxiety symptoms and California Verbal Learning Test-II to measure recall memory. Visual Paired Associates test was used to examine visual learning and memory, and Digit and spatial spans test was used to test memory working. Additionally, Functional Index Measure which includes 13 motor and 5 cognitive items was also used to assess outcomes of rehabilitation. The motor items include self care, sphincter control, mobility, locomotion, and social cognition. While the five cognitive items cover independence in comprehension of communication, expressive communication, social interactions, problem solving, and memory. Furthermore, the researcher included Integrated Visual Auditory Continuous Performance Test and Victoria Stroop. The mood assessments and neuropsychological took about 120 min to be completed according to standardized procedures. The researcher found from his measurements that the prevalence of depression and anxiety three months post stroke was 22.8 and 21.1% respectively with one in five patients have either moderate or severe depression or anxiety. According to the site of injury, he found the patients with left hemisphere injury were more likely to get depression or anxiety. Because of the left hemisphere is the part which is responsible about language skills, the lesion in it can cause communication deficits which then can lead patients to feel depressed. Suffering of post stroke depression or anxiety can affect the physical therapy sessions. Depressed patient may lack the motivation to complete the session while the anxious patient can suffer from fearful of falling to attempt to walk without device. Appelros and Viitanen (2004) also measured the prevalence of post stroke depression in a Swedish Population during 1999-2000. They included 377 patients, 129 were females and 124 were males, with first ever cases of brain infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke of undetermined pathological type and with mean age 74.5 years old. One hundred and nine patients complain of right hemisphere damage while 138 patients were left hemisphere damage. The researchers used Swedish version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) which include 20 items, and cutoff is >5. The items cover anxiety, panic, insomnia, hypochondria, and pain. Patients in all cases answered the questions which were read aloud for them. Further evaluation was subjected to patients who crossed cutoff on the GDS. One year follow up, Modified Rankin Scale was used to assess dependency. Cognitive impairment was measured by using Mini Mental State Examination which define the cognitive impairmen t at a score of

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Inventory :: essays research papers

Name: Job #: # of APPLIANCES ft ³ TOTAL # of BEDROOM1/2/3/4/5 ft ³ TOTAL Air Cond. / Window Lg. 20 0 Bed Waterbed Base 10 0 Air Cond. / Window Sm. 15 0 Bed, Bunk (Set 2) 70 0 Dehumidifier 5 0 Bed, King 70 0 Dishwasher 20 0 1 Bed, Queen 65 65 1 Dryer 11 11 Bed, Rollaway 20 0 Freezer, 10' or less 30 0 Bed, Single/Hollywood 40 0 Freezer, 11' to 15' 45 0 2 Bed, Std/Dbl./Full 60 120 Freezer, 16' or more 60 0 Book Box 6 0 Range, 20" Wide 10 0 Chair, Boudoir 10 0 Range, 30" Wide 15 0 2 Chair, Straight 5 10 Range, 36" Wide 30 0 Chaise Lounge 25 0 Refrig. 11 ft ³ or more 60 0 3 Chest of Drawers 25 75 Refrig. 7 to 10 ft ³ 45 0 Chest, Armoire 30 0 2 Refrig. 6 ft ³ or less 30 60 Chest, Batchelor 12 0 1 ShopVac 5 5 Chest, Cedar 15 0 Stackable Washer / Dryer 35 0 Day Bed / Captains Bed 50 0 1 Vacuum Cleaner 5 5 Dresser, Double 40 0 1 Washing Machine 25 25 Dresser, Single 30 0 # of DINING ft ³ Dresser, Triple 50 0 Baker's Rack 15 0 Dresser, Vanity 20 0 Bench, Harvest 10 0 Dresser/Vanity Bch 3 0 1 Buffet (Base) 30 30 Floor Lamp 3 0 Cabinet Corner 20 0 1 Futon 25 25 7 Dining Chair 5 35 3 Lamp 3 9 1 Dining Table 30 30 Mirror 6 0 Hutch (Top) 20 0 2 Night Table 5 10 2 Lamp 3 6 4 Picture 3 12 0 Mirror 6 0 Student Desk 15 0 0 Picture 3 0 3 Trunk 5 15 Tea Cart 10 0 1 Wardrobe Closet,LG 40 40 # of KITCHEN ft ³ 1 Wardrobe Closet,SM 20 20 Baker's Rack 15 0 # of NURSERY ft ³ Breakfast Suite, Chairs 5 0 Baby Carriage 4 0 1 Bread Maker 3 3 Bassinet 5 0 Breakfast Table 10 0 Bed, Youth 30 0 Chair, High 5 0 Chair, Child`s 3 0 High Chair 5 0 Changing Table 25 0 1 Ironing Board 2 2 Chest 12 0 Kitchen Cabinet 30 0 Chest, Toy 5 0 Lamp 3 0 Child`s Rocking Chair 3 0 Microwave Oven 5 0 Crib, Baby 10 0 Microwave Stand 10 0 Playpen 10 0 Mirror 6 0 Rocking Chair 7 0 3 Picture 3 9 Table, Child`s 5 0 Serving Cart 15 0 # of PORCH/OUTDOOR ft ³ 1 0 1 BBQ Grill, Large 10 10 Barstool 3 0 1 BBQ Grill, Small 2 2 1 Toaster Oven 1 1 Bird Bath 10 0 Utility Cabinet 10 0 3 Chair, Plastic 1 3 # of LIVING ROOM ft ³ Chairs, Aluminum 1 0 Bar, Portable 15 0 4 Chairs, Metal 3 12 Bench, Frsd/Piano 5 0 Chairs, Wood 5 0 Bookcase 20 0 Garden Hose & Tools 10 0 Bookshelves, Sect. 5 0 Glider or settee 20 0 Cabinet, Curio 10 0 1 Golf Clubs / Bag 8 8 Chair, Occasional 15 0 Ladder 6' Step 3 0 Chair, Overstuffed 25 0 Ladder, 8' Metal 2 0 Chair, Rocker 12 0 1 Ladder, Extension 8 8 Chair, Straight 5 0 Lawn Mover, Rider (HP) 35 0 Clock, Grandfather 20 0 1 Lawn Mower, Hand 5 5 Desk, Secretary 35 0 Lawn Mower, Power 15 0 Desk, SM/Winthrop 22 0 1 Leaf Blower 5 5 Fireplace Equip. 5 0 Outdoor Child Gym 20 0 Footstool 2 0 Outdoor Child Slide 10 0 Hall Tree Large 12 0 Outdoor Swings 30 0 Hall Tree Rack 2 0 Picnic Bench 5 0 Lamp, Floor/Pole 2 0 Picnic Table 20 0 Lg. Wicker Chair 4 0 Plastic Chair 1 0 Lg. Wicker Sofa 15 0 Roller, Lawn 15 0 Magazine Rack 2 0 Skis / Poles 8 0 Mirror 4 0 Snow Blower 15 0 Music Cabinet 10 0 Spreader, Lawn 2 0 Ottoman 5 0 Statue 0 Papasan Chair 4 0 1 Table, Large 4 4 Phone Stand 4 0 Table, Plastic 2 0 Piano, Baby Gr/Upr 70 0 Table, Small 2 0 Piano, Parlor Gr. 80 0 Trampolene 0 Piano, Spinet/Console 60 0 Umbrella 5 0 3 Picture 3 9 1 Wheelbarrow 8 8 1 Recliner 25 25 # of OFFICE/MISC ft ³ Room Divider 10 0 2 Dr File Cab. Dbl. Wide 20 0 Rugs, Lg. Roll/Pad 10 0 3 Drawer File Cab. 30 0 Rugs, Sm. Roll/Pad 3 0 3 Drawer File Cab. 30 0 Sm. Wicker Chair 2 0 3 Dr File Cab. Dbl. Wide 60 0 Sm. Wicker Sofa 10 0 4 Dr File Cab. Dbl. Wide 40 0 Sofa, Hide, 4 Cush. 60 0 Barbells lbs. 0 1 Sofa, Loveseat 35 35 Basket (Clothes) 5 0 Sofa, Sectional (per sec.) 30 0 1 Bicycle 5 5 1 Sofa, 3 Cushion 50 50 Bowling Ball/Bag 3 0 Table Lamps 3 0 Chairs, Folding 1 0 3 Tables, Coffee/End 5 15 1 Clothes Hamper 5 5 Tables, Drop/Occas 12 0 Cot, Folding 10 0 # of ELECTRONICS ft ³ 1 Desk, Office 30 30 Ceiling Fan 7 0 1 Exercise Machine 20 20 Chair 5 0 Exercycle 5 0 Computer Desk 20 0 Fan 5 0 1 Computer printer 5 5 Fern/Plant Stands 2 0 Copier 40 0 1 Filing Cab. 2 Drawers 10 10 1 DVD 3 3 Filing Cab. 4 Drawers 20 0 Entertainment Ctr. 20 0 Filing Cab.Crdbd 3 0 1 Fax 5 5 Footlockers 5 0 Floor Speaker 5 0 1 Heater, Gas/Electric 5 5

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Frank-n-Furter, Michel Dorsey/Dorothy Michels, and Dil: alternative mas

Frank-n-Furter, Michel Dorsey/Dorothy Michels, and Dil: alternative masculinities in film from the 70's to the 90's The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), Tootsie (1982), and The Crying Game (1993) are united by their overt concern with sexuality and gender; particularly non-dominant gender and sexual identities. Dr. Frank-N-Furter, of The Rocky Horror Picture Show, Michel Dorsey, of Tootsie, and Dil, of The Crying Game, challenge conventional masculinity, and, the latter two especially, expose gender roles as nothing more than performances or social constructs. In so doing, these protagonists propose alternative masculinities and male gender roles. The nature and the presentation of these alternative males has evolved from being alien, as in the early Rocky Horror Picture Show, to being an improvement on the masculine norm, as in Tootsie, to being a completely new form of masculinity within society, as in the recent Crying Game. This evolution demonstrates society’s gradual acceptance of the existence of alternative masculinities, from the seventies to the nineties. The Rocky Horror Picture Show is considered by many film scholars to be "the granddaddy" (Saunders 91) of cult films. As most cult movies appeal to our subversive instincts, our desire to see conventional morality trashed (Giannetti, Leach 252), the film provides an interesting point of departure for a study of the subversion of masculine norms. Throughout this film, Frank-n-Furter mercilessly assaults the straight world and its values, especially conventional masculinity, as represented by Brad, and finally seduces Brad into adopting his alternative masculinity. The opening scene foreshadows the fact that Brad’s conventional masculinity will be challenged late... ... The Crying Game, all challenge conventional male gender roles, and propose alternative ones. The latter two characters also expose gender as a social construct, and, in so doing, illustrate that gender roles are malleable, and not predetermined and fixed. While The Rocky Horror Picture Show presents an alternative form of masculinity in an alien being, and Tootsie’s alternative male turns out to be a reworking of the conventional male, in The Crying Game, the alternative male is just that, a real alternative to normative masculinity. Dil is not an alien, or a heterosexual actor, but is an actual transvestite, living among more or less conventional masculine types. This evolution in the presentation of alternative masculinities in film, from the seventies to the nineties, demonstrates society’s gradual acceptance of the existence of alternative forms of masculinity.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Impact of Special Education in the Society Essay

Filipinos are known to be hospitable in all circumstances, boys or girls, young or old and normal or disabled are alike. In fact, there is a law enacted only for the adjustment of the disabled people to the Philippines society. The Republic Act No. 7277 â€Å"Magna Carta for Disabled Persons† in accordance to it, it is an act providing for the Rehabilitation, Self-Development and Self-Reliance of disabled persons and their integration into the mainstream of society and for other purposes. According to Section 2 of this Law, disabled persons are part of the Philippines society. This proves that there is no gap between disabled and normal people are equal and unbiased. Balance in terms of education, health services,auxiliary social services,telecommunications,accessibility,political and civil rights and employment. If one of the stated laws is violated, there will be a corresponding penalty depending on how the rule is dishonored. This are the notion of the PWD’s in the P hilippine society when it comes to civil liberties. On the other hand, various impolite citizens desert PWD’s in the society. They criticize them by their physical appearances and their handicapped, I have seen many of those scenes in the movies. Nevertheless,today,there are many organizations that are established which aims to help the PWD’s that excels in various sports and arts. Filipinos have strong family ties. Aside from those organizations, the families of the PWD’s that excels in various sports and arts. Filipinos have strong family ties. Aside from those organizations, the families of the PWD’s are also accommodating in supporting their needs. They are the ones who are responsible for the caring and giving of love and affection to the PWD’s so that they will not feel that they are being neglected. Now a days, there are a lot of PWD’s that excels in various sports and arts. This testifies that there are no exceptions in terms of talent identification either normal or disabled. God created man as one, with equal standard of rights. What the normal people can do, PWD ’s are also capable of doing them. I have already seen people with disabilities and abnormalities. When I was in elementary, I have encountered talking to those people or students who were having abnormalities because our school was having a Sped class. I observed how they behave,socialize, work and interact with others. Some students, at  times make fun of them and usually laugh at them. And it got me thinking what would it like to be if I were in their shoe? I realized that it’s not that easy. It needs a lot of understanding and patience. To educate a special child needs a lot of patience but for me if we just understand what they are and be optimistic they will learn thing what normal students can learn, there’s a big possibility that the special kid will be educated. We should also accept them whole heartedly. Love them and care for them so that they will not feel neglected. We should treat them equally with the other normal people. Because special children knows and feel that they are being deserted and that should not happen. I have a classmate in the elementary before who is an autistic child. He was very intelligent in math. And because of that observation, I concluded that special children have special talents and knowledge. I believe that they can do what normal people can do. Special education is the way to educate special children what I have learned and what they should learn, to enhance there hidden talents and skills to excel more in other things to compete with those normal people. It is also the way to train them as good citizens and children of God. And also a way for them to know and learn the values of life so that they will know how to respect each other including the normal ones. Through special education, the parents of special children can also learn and get some ideas on how to educate their child from the sped educators because it doesn’t mean the the obligation of the parents is over and all the responsibility is handed to the educator. And through SPED, parents can apply what they have learned from the educator is their homes. because the obligation of the parents is to educate their children until the end. We are in the world of differences, both mentally and physically. But in the eyes of the Almighty God we are one. So the development of special children should be continuously taught with patience, care and love.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Materials And Processes Environmental Sciences Essay

In natural philosophies, thermodynamics ( from the Greek I?I ­I?I?I · therme, intending â€Å" heat † and I?I?I?I ±I?I?I‚ , dynamis, intending â€Å" power † ) is the survey of energy transition between heat and mechanical work, and later the macroscopic variables such as temperature, volume and force per unit area. Its primogenitor, based on statistical anticipations of the corporate gesture of atoms from their microscopic behaviour, is the field of statistical thermodynamics ( or statistical mechanics ) , a subdivision of statistical natural philosophies. Thermodynamicss is the scientific discipline which relates kineticss of fluids with thermic and energy, thermodynamics trades with heat, work, and power. In this study a set of statements and expressions are described and explained.State of a System, 0th jurisprudence of thermodynamics:The zeroth jurisprudence of thermodynamics provinces that when two organic structures have equality of temperature with a 3rd organic structure, they in bend equality of temperature with each other [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . If A, B, and C are systems or organic structures, we said that the organic structures or the systems are in thermic equilibrium or changeless temperature, A and B in thermic equilibrium and B and C are in thermic equilibrium besides. if T ( A ) = T ( B ) and T ( B ) = T ( C ) so T ( A ) = T ( C ) .Figure ( 1 ) : Thermal equilibrium between two organic structures.Work, Heat, 1th jurisprudence of thermodynamics:The first jurisprudence of thermodynamics provinces that during a rhythm a system ( command mass ) undergoes, the cyclic integral of the heat is relative to the cyclic integral of the work [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . In another words the preservation of energy provinces that the alteration in the internal energy of any closed system equal the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. the undermentioned equation shows that: See Piston cylinder system with H2O inside the cylinder, province ( 1 ) as shown in figure ( 2 ) below shows the initial province of the system ( H2O has internal energy ) and it is in equilibrium province, when an external burden applied to the Piston the system transferred to province ( 2 ) and work and heat transferred into and from the system to make to the 2nd equilibrium place ( province 2 ) .Figure ( 2 ) : Application of the first jurisprudence of thermodynamics.Internal Energy, Expansion Work:The internal energy is a thermodynamic belongings ; besides it can be defined as the sum of random energy included in certain sum of the mater due to the internal motion of atoms. Besides it is extended belongings because it depends on the mass of the system. The sum of internal energy of any stuff as thermodynamic belongings depends on the mass of the organic structure and it specific heat capacity, for illustration if we increase the temperature of metal its internal energy increased based on the temperature difference, besides metals have high specific heat capacity than liquids.Figure ( 3 ) : Comparison between metal and ice based on the internal energy.Heat content:The heat content is defined as the heat transportation during the procedure which is given in the footings of the alteration in internal energy, force per unit area and volume [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . The undermentioned equation shows the chief parametric quantities of heat content. The thermodynamic potency H was introduced by the Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes in early twentieth century in the undermentioned signifier: Where Tocopherol represents the energy of the system. In the absence of an external field, the heat content may be defined, as it is by and large known, by: where ( all units given in SI ) H is the heat content ( in Js ) , U is the internal energy ( in Js ) , P is the force per unit area of the system, ( in Pas ) , and V is the volume, ( in three-dimensional metres ) . Form pV ( sometimes called â€Å" flow work † ) is motivated by the undermentioned illustration of an isobaric procedure. Gas bring forthing heat ( by, for illustration, a chemical reaction ) in a cylinder pushes a Piston, keeping changeless force per unit area P and adding to its thermic energy. The force is calculated from the country A of the Piston and definition of force per unit area P = F/A: the force is F = pA. By definition, work W done is W = Fx, where ten is the distance traversed. Uniting gives W = pax, and the merchandise Ax is the volume traversed by the Piston: Ax = V. Thus, the work done by the gas is W = pV, where P is a changeless force per unit area and V the enlargement of volume. Including this term allows the treatment of energy alterations when non merely temperature, but besides volume or force per unit area are changed. The enthalpy alteration can be defined I†H = I†U + W = I†U + I† ( pV ) , where I†U is the thermic energy due to warming of the gas during the enlargement, and W the work done on the Piston.Joule-Thomson Experiment:Joule-Thomson experiment is used to find the C dioxide coefficient. And comparing the experimental value with the deliberate value. Figure ( 3 ) shows the experimental setup of Joule-Thomson experiment.Figure ( 3 ) : Joule-Thomson experimental apparatus ( Taylor ) .The fluid allowed fluxing steadily from a high force per unit area to low force per unit area through a porous stopper inserted in a pipe. At steady conditions the pipe is insulated from any heat loss to environing, the flow speed should be low so the differences in kinetic energy between the upstream and the downstream are negligible. Measurements ‘ of temperature and force per unit area up watercourse and downstream the media should be taken ( G.F.C. Rogers ) . Ploting curves for both warming and chilling procedure for force per unit area and temperature of the gas, the aforethought curves are shown in figure ( 4 ) .Figure ( 4 ) : Isenthalpic curves and the enthalpy inversion curve ( Taylor ) .Adiabatic Procedures:Adiabatic means the procedure during which the heat is prevented from traversing the boundary of the system ( G.F.C. Rogers ) . The system is thermally insulated from the environing conditions, so for adiabatic procedure the first jurisprudence of thermodynamics is reduced to the alteration in internal energy peers the work done by the system or on the system.Figure ( 5 ) : Adiabatic procedure in P-V diagram ( G.F.C. Rogers ) .What is Thermochemistry:Thermochemistry is the survey of energy produced or absorbed in chemical reactions and any physical transmutation such as runing or boiling. Thermochemistry, by and large, is concerned with the energy exchange attach toing transmutations, such as commixture, stage passages, chemical r eactions, and including computations of such measures as the heat capacity, heat of burning, heat of formation, heat content, and free energy ( E.H. Cole ) . Thermochemistry remainders on two generalisations. Stated in modern footings, they are as follows: Lavoisier and Laplace ‘s jurisprudence ( 1780 ) : The energy alteration attach toing any transmutation is equal and antonym of energy alteration attach toing the contrary procedure. Hess ‘s jurisprudence ( 1840 ) : The energy alteration attach toing any transmutation is the same whether the procedure occurs in one measure or many.Figure ( 6 ) : Energy motion ( ) .What is Calorimetry:The word calorimetry was derived from the lateen word calor which means heat and Greek word metry which means step ; it is the scientific discipline of mensurating the sum of heat. To mensurate the energy produced from certain fuel or affair calorimeter is used. Calorimeter is a device consists of barrel filled with H2O and a bomb filled with fuel ( oil fuel or coal ) besides and electric circuit is used to bring forth electrical signal to fire the discharge inside the bomb, after that the heat transportations to the H2O inside the calorimeter, by mensurating the initial and concluding H2O temperature and cognizing the H2O sum in the calorimeter, the sum of heat green goods from the fuel discharge can be estimated. The figure below shows the calorimeter.Fi gure ( 7 ) : Calorimeter ( E.H. Cole ) .Second Law of Thermodynamicss:The 2nd jurisprudence of thermodynamics is the jurisprudence of heat and power, it can be expressed as: It is impossible to do an engine to run in a ( thermodynamics ) rhythm, in which the lone interactions are positive work done on the milieus and heat transportation from a system which remains at changeless temperature ( E.H. Cole ) .Figure ( 8 ) : The schematic of 2nd jurisprudence of thermodynamics ( ) .The undermentioned expression of the jurisprudence has been proposed: It is impossible to build a heat-engine rhythm which will bring forth merely the consequence of lifting a weight ( net work or shaft work ) if heat is exchanged with a individual thermal reservoir ( Max Planck ) , and heat can non of itself flow from a colder to a hotter system ( Rudolf Clausius ) .Carnot Cycle:Said Carnot a Gallic scientist of the early 19th century, he proposed a heat engine rhythm based on the 2nd jurisprudence of thermodynamics. Carnot said that the work by the heat engine rhythm increased by increasing the temperature differences between the hot and the cold reservoirs ( Leonard ) . So the efficiency of Carnot rhythm depends on the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs.Figure ( 9 ) : Caront rhythm in Pressure-Volume diagram, ( ) .The public presentation of heat engine rhythm nine expressed as the dividend divided by the cost, the intent of power rhythm is to present shaft work, which is the dividend. The cost depends on the heat suppl y from the hot reservoir.Third jurisprudence of Thermodynamicss and absolute information:The Third Law of Thermodynamics is the lesser known of the three major thermodynamic Torahs. Together, these Torahs help organize the foundations of modern scientific discipline. The Torahs of thermodynamics are absolute physical Torahs everything in the discernible existence is capable to them. Like clip or gravitation, nil in the existence is exempt from these Torahs. In its simplest signifier, the Third Law of Thermodynamics relates the information ( entropy ) of affair to its absolute temperature ( G.F.C Rogers ) . The Third Law of Thermodynamics refers to a province known as â€Å" absolute nothing. † This is the bottom point on the Kelvin temperature graduated table. The Kelvin graduated table is absolute, intending 0A ° Kelvin is mathematically the lowest possible temperature in the existence. This corresponds to about -273.15A ° Celsius, or -459.7 Fahrenheit. In actuality, no object or system can hold a temperature of nothing Kelvin, because of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law, in portion, implies that heat can ne'er spontaneously move from a colder organic structure to a hotter organic structure. So, as a system approaches absolute zero, it will finally hold to pull energy from whatever systems are nearby. If it draws energy, it can ne'er obtain absolute nothing. So, this province is non physically possible, but is a mathematical bound of the existence. In its shortest signifier, the Third Law of Thermodynamics says: â€Å" The information of a pure perfect crystal is zero ( 0 ) at nothing Kelvin ( 0A ° K ) . † Entropy is a belongings of affair and energy discussed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Third Law of Thermodynamics means that as the temperature of a system approaches absolute zero, its information approaches a changeless ( for pure perfect crystals, this invariable is zero ) . A pure perfect crystal is one in which every molecule is indistinguishable, and the molecular alliance is absolutely even throughout the substance. For non-pure crystals, or those with less-than perfect alliance, there will be some energy associated with the imperfectnesss, so the information can non go nothing. The Third Law of Thermodynamics can be visualized by believing about H2O. Water in gas signifier has molecules that can travel about really freely. Water vapour has really high information ( entropy ) . As the gas cools, it becomes liquid. The liquid H2O molecules can still travel about, but non as freely. They have lost some information. When the H2O cools farther, it becomes solid ice. The solid H2O molecules can no longer travel freely, but can merely vibrate within the ice crystals. The information is now really low. As the H2O is cooled more, closer and closer to absolute zero, the quiver of the molecules diminishes. If the solid H2O reached absolute nothing, all molecul ar gesture would halt wholly. At this point, the H2O would hold no information ( entropy ) at all.Standards of Equilibrium:The province of system is determined by the molecules within the system boundaries. The equilibrium has different significances, if we have material in solid or liquid stage we said that stuff is in stage equilibrium if its stage does non alter. Besides if the province of the stuff is changeless we said that stuff in thermodynamic equilibrium ( William C. Reynolds ) . The macroscopic belongingss that can in rule be measured as a map of the thermodynamic equilibrium province and that are in some manner relevant to energy are called thermodynamic equilibrium. Any conglomerate characteristic of all the molecules, such as their entire energy, is a thermodynamic belongings. When the province is fixed the thermodynamics belongingss are fixed.13. Helmholtz and Gibbs free energy:The thermodynamics potencies consists of four measures, these measures are internal energy, the heat content, the Helmholtz free energy and the Gibbs free energy. So Helmholtz and Gibbs are portion of thermodynamics possible. The Helmholtz free energy depends on the internal energy, temperature, and information. Equation below shows the relation between internal energy, absolute temperature, and information in Helmholtz free energy equation. Gibbs free energy as shown in equation below depends on internal energy, absolute temperature, information, absolute force per unit area, and the concluding volume. The four thermodynamic potencies are related by beginnings of the â€Å" energy from the environment † term TS and the â€Å" enlargement work † term PV. A mnemotechnic diagram suggested by Schroeder can assist you maintain path of the relationships between the four thermodynamic potencies.14. Hess ‘s jurisprudence:Hess ‘s jurisprudence states that the energy alteration in any chemical or physical reaction does non depend on the way or figure of stairss required to finish this reaction.Figure ( 10 ) : Chemical reaction stairss with energy sum.The I†H for a individual reaction can be calculated from the difference between the heats of formation of the merchandises minus the heat of formation of the reactants. In mathematical footings:15. Clausius-Clapeyron equation:The Clausius-Clapeyron equation relates the fluctuation of force per unit area with temperature along the saturated-vapor ( or liquid ) line to the heat content and volume of vaporisation. Th is equation is utile in building a graphical or tabular equation of province from a lower limit of experimental measurings ( Williams C. Reynolds ) . The clausius-Clapeyron equation allows gauging the vapor force per unit area at any temperature if the heat content of vaporisation and vapor force per unit area at some temperatures are known,16. Ideal Solution and Non-ideal Solution:In chemical science, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution in which the heat content of solution ( or â€Å" heat content of blending † ) is zero ; [ 1 ] the closer to zero the heat content of solution is, the more â€Å" ideal † the behaviour of the solution becomes. Equivalently, an ideal mixture is one in which the activity coefficients ( which step divergence from ideality ) are equal to one ( Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia ) . A solution whose behaviour does non conform to that of an ideal solution ; that is, the behaviour is non predictable over a broad scope of concentrations and temperatures by the usage of Raoult ‘s jurisprudence. In contrast to ideal solutions, where volumes are purely linear and commixture is ever complete, the volume of a non-ideal solution is non, in general, the simple amount of the volumes of the component pure liquids and solubility is non guaranteed over the whole composing scope.Figure ( 11 ) : Behavior of non ideal solutions.17. Statistical mechanics:Statistical mechanics or statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical tool trades with high population or informations. It ‘s related with macroscopic thermodynamic belongingss such as work, information, free energy, and heat. Ludwig Boltzmann is the male parent of statistical thermodynamics ; he started the work in statistical mechanics in 1870.18. Raoult ‘s Law /MIXTURES:The partial vapour force per unit area of a constituent in a mixture is equal to the vapour force per unit area of the pure constituent at that temperature multiplied by its mole fraction in the mixture. Raoult ‘s Law merely works for ideal mixtures In equation signifier, for a mixture of liquids A and B, this reads ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) : In this equation, PA and PB are the partial vapor force per unit areas of the constituents A and B. In any mixture of gases, each gas exerts its ain force per unit area. This is called its partial force per unit area and is independent of the other gases present. Even if you took all the other gases off, the staying gas would still be exercising its ain partial force per unit area. The entire vapor force per unit area of the mixture is equal to the amount of the single partial force per unit areas. The Po values are the vapour force per unit areas of A and B if they were on their ain as pure liquids. xA and xB are the mole fractions of A and B. That is precisely what it says it is – the fraction of the entire figure of moles present which is A or B. mole fraction utilizing, for illustration:19. Reversible/irreversible/Adiabatic/isobaric/isothermal/Isochoric procedures:The reversible procedure is the procedure that the system takes topographic point one time and returns to its original province without any alteration in the system or environing [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . The irreversible procedure, this procedure done when the system undergoes certain procedure it transferred from province and can non return to its original province without any alteration in the system or environing [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . Adiabatic procedure, this done when the system transferred from one province to another without heat transportation to environing [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . Isobar procedure, it is a procedure with changeless force per unit area [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . Isothermal procedure, the system transferred from province to another at changeless temperature [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . Isochoric procedure, procedure with changeless volume [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .Figure ( 12 ) : The thermodynamics processes [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .20. Heat of Vaporization:Heat of vaporisation or latent heat of vaporisation is the sum of heat needed to reassign certain sum of affair from liquid province to vapor province. Heat of vaporisation depends on the affair itself, its sum ( mass ) , and the temperature. Table below shows the heat of vaporisation of H2O at different temperatures [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] . No. Temperature ( Co ) Heat of Vaporization kJ/kg ) 1 5 2489.6 2 10 2477.7 3 15 2465.9 4 20 2454.1 5 25 2442.3 6 30 2430.5Table ( 1 ) : Heat of Vaporization for H2O at different temperatures [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .21. Restricting Procedures:Restricting procedure done when fluid go throughing through valve or sudden reduction in country, the flow is steady and the force per unit area Idaho drooped across the valve ; in the choking procedure the heat content is changeless, so the choking procedure is a procedure with changeless heat content. One application of restricting procedure is the restricting calorimeter, restricting calorimeter is a device used to find the quality of a two stage liquid-vapor mixture [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .Figure ( 13 ) : Restricting procedure [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .22. Joule Thomson Coefficient:Joule-Thomson coefficient relates to the choking procedure, it ‘s the consequence of divergence of temperature bead to coerce bead for a steady province, steady flow through partly opening valve. The equation below shows Joule-Thomson coefficient: Positive Joule-Thomson coefficient means that there is temperature bead during the choking procedure, but when it is negative the temperature rises during the restricting procedure [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .23. Maxwell ‘s Relationss:Maxwell dealingss are mathematical dealingss for compressible fluids, this relation are related four belongingss, the thermodynamics belongingss in Maxwell dealingss are force per unit area ( P ) , Temperature ( T ) , specific volume ( V ) , and information ( S ) . Maxwell dealingss are summarized in three positions as shown below, the first position the basic equation, the 2nd position the Maxwell relation, and the last position is the working equation [ Gordon J. Van Wylen ] .Basic equationMaxwell RelationWorking EquationWhere: Uracils: internal energy. CP: specific heat under changeless force per unit area. Thymine: Temperature. Curriculum vitae: specfic heat under changeless specific volume. Phosphorus: Pressure. Volts: Volume. Second: Information. Hydrogen: Enthaply.24. Chemical equilibrium in gases:Thermodynamicss equilibrium are established when no alteration in macroscopic belongings is obtained that is intend the system is isolated from the milieus. The equilibrium is classified to three types ‘ mechanical equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and thermic equilibrium. In chemical equilibrium there is no reaction or affair transportation from one portion of the system to another portion ( P.K. NAG ) . The system may be in mechanical equilibrium yet the system may undergo self-generated Change of internal construction due to chemical potency, such as chemical reaction or a transportation of affair, the system so is said to be in chemical equilibrium if all interactions or alterations in the system cease to take topographic point. A burning mixture of O and gasolene is non in chemical equilibrium one time the mixture is ignited.25. Statements of the Second Law/ Kelvin /Planck/Clausius Statement:Kelvin-Planck statement:It is impossible to build a device which, runing in a rhythm, will bring forth no consequence other that raising of a weight and chilling of heat reservoir ( M.L. Mathur ) . It is impossible to build a cyclic device whose consequence is to pull out heat from a heat reservoir and wholly change over into work ( M.L. Mathur ) .Clausius statementIt is impossible to build a cyclic device which will bring forth no consequence other than the transportation of heat from a low temperature beginning to high temperature heat beginning ( M.L. Mathur ) . The heat can non flux by itself ( with out the aid of an external bureau ) from low temperature to high temperature ( M.L. Mathur ) .Figure ( 14 ) : This is non possible ( Kelvin-Planck ) .26. Information of a Mixture of Ideal Gases/ Gibbs-Dalton ‘s Law:The Gibbs-Dalton equation trades with gas mixture belongingss, the entire thermodynamic belongings of a mixture of ideal gases is the amount of the belongingss that the single gases would hold if each occupied the entire mixture volume entirely at the mixture temperature, ( M.L. Mathur ) , besides the mathematical signifier of Gibbs-Dalton equation as shown below:No.MeasureEquation1 Internal Energy 2 Heat content 3 Specific heat under changeless force per unit area 4 Specific heat under changeless specific volumeTable ( 2 ) : Gas mixture equations ( M.L. Mathur ) .27. Handiness:Handiness is the system maximal available energy. This non merely depends on the given province of the system but besides on the concluding province to which the system has to be taken and mode in which it is done. When handiness of the system is required to be determined so the concluding province of system ought to be dead province ( M.L. Mathur ) . The undermentioned points should be observed when finding the handiness of any system: The concluding province of the system is dead province. The system undergoes alteration of province by a reversible procedure. The construct of handiness introduce wholly a new and good construct in the field of heat engines where overall thermic efficiency, obtained on the footing of entire chemical energy of the fuel was the lone footing for comparing engines and their public presentation.28. Real Gases /Virial Equation of State /Van der Waals Equation of State:The continuity of liquids and gases were studied by Van der Waals, the equation of equation of province for gas was obtained in 1873, and the general signifier of Van der Waals equation is: Where: a: changeless measures the cohesive forces. B: changeless accounts the volume of gas molecules. V: specific volume. : Universal gas invariable. Thymine: Absolute gas temperature. The restrictions of Van der Waals equation are ( M.L. Mathur ) : The invariables a and B are measured changeless for a substance where as they are non ; this has been proved theoretically every bit good as by experimentation. The p-v secret plan of Van der Waals equation differs from Andrews secret plan. The value of the critical volume obtained from Van der Waals equation Al coefficient is 3b as compared to its experimental determine value of 2b for the moist substances. The critical coefficient is 0.375 for Van der Waals gas equation but from experiments it was from 0.2 to 0.3 for most substances.29. Fugacity:Fugacity ( degree Fahrenheit ) was used in the first clip by Lewis, the value of fugacity approaches the value of force per unit area as the missive tends to zero, when the ideal gas conditions applies. The derived function of the Gibbs map of an ideal gas undergoing an isothermal procedure is ( P.K.NAG ) : aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦ ( 6 ) aˆÂ ¦aˆÂ ¦.. ( 7 ) For an ideal gas the fugacity f equal the gas force per unit area P, fugacity has the same dimensions as force per unit area.Figure ( 15 ) : Fugacity with temperature.30. Dalton ‘s Law, Raoult ‘s Law, Henry ‘s Law:Dalton states that the force per unit area of a mixture of gases is equal to the amount of the partial force per unit area of each component. This can be easy done utilizing perfect gas equation for component every bit good as for the mixture ( M.L. Mathur ) . Raoult ‘s jurisprudence [ for F. M. Raoult, a Gallic physicist and chemist ] provinces that the add-on of solute to a liquid lessens the inclination for the liquid to go a solid or a gas, i.e. , reduces the freeze point and the vapor force per unit area ( see solution ) . For illustration, the add-on of salt to H2O causes the H2O to stop dead below its normal freezing point ( 0A °C ) and to boil above its normal boiling point ( 100A °C ) . Qualitatively, depression of the freeze point and decrease of the vapour force per unit area are due to a lowering of the concentration of H2O molecules, since the more solute is added, the less the per centum of H2O molecules in the solution as a whole and therefore the less their inclination to organize into a crystal solid or to get away as a gas. Quantitatively, Raoult ‘s jurisprudence states that the dissolver ‘s vapor force per unit area in solution is equal to its mole fraction times its vapor force per unit area as a p ure liquid, from which it follows that the freeze point depression and boiling point lift are straight relative to the mode of the solute, although the invariables of proportion are different in each instance. This mathematical relation, nevertheless, is accurate merely for dilute solutions. The fact that an appropriate solute can both lower the freeze point and raise the boiling point of a pure liquid is the footing for year-round antifreeze for car chilling systems. In the winter the antifreeze lowers the freezing point of the H2O, forestalling it from stop deading at its normal freezing point ; in the summer it guards against furuncle over by raising the boiling point of the H2O. In chemical science, Henry ‘s jurisprudence is one of the gas Torahs, formulated by William Henry in 1803. It states that: At a changeless temperature, the sum of a given gas dissolved in a given type and volume of liquid is straight relative to the partial force per unit area of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid. An tantamount manner of saying the jurisprudence is that the solubility of a gas in a liquid at a peculiar temperature is relative to the force per unit area of that gas above the liquid. Henry ‘s jurisprudence has since been shown to use for a broad scope of dilute solutions, non simply those of gases. An mundane illustration of Henry ‘s jurisprudence is given by carbonated soft drinks. Before the bottle or can is opened, the gas above the drink is about pure C dioxide at a force per unit area somewhat higher than atmospheric force per unit area. The drink itself contains dissolved C dioxide. When the bottle or can is opened, some of this gas escap es, giving the characteristic hushing ( or â€Å" dad † in the instance of a bubbly bottle ) . Because the force per unit area above the liquid is now lower, some of the dissolved C dioxide comes out of solution as bubbles. If a glass of the drink is left in the unfastened, the concentration of C dioxide in solution will come into equilibrium with the C dioxide in the air, and the drink will travel â€Å" level † ( hypertext transfer protocol: //'s_law ) .31. Lost Work Rate, Irreversibility Rate, Availability Loss:Information is produced as a consequence of irreversibilities present in the procedure, this may explicate with the aid of construct of lost work. The doomed in work is zero in a reversible procedure and it increases with the addition in irreversibility of the procedure till it becomes maximal in instance of wholly irreversible procedure. The lost work is therefore defined as the difference of work obtained in a reversible procedure and existent procedure ( M.L. Mathur ) . The undermentioned notes for the work lost should be taken: For a reversible procedure when the work lost is zero the alteration in information is given by: The information of a system can be increased by two ways, foremost by adding heat to the system or by holding it undergoes an irreversible procedure. The addition in entropy due to work lost is called entropy production. For an adiabatic procedure, the alteration in information is associated with irreversibilities merely.32. Irreversibility and Entropy of an Isolated System:The information of an stray system can ne'er diminish. This is known as the rule of addition of information. An stray system can ever be formed by including any system and its milieus within a individual boundary. Some times the original system which is so merely a portion of the stray system called a subsystem. The system and milieus together include every thing which is affected by the procedure ( P.K. NAG ) . Information may be decreased locally at some part within the stray system. But it must be compensated by a greater addition of information some where within the system so that the net consequence of an irreversible procedure is an entropy addition of the hole system. The entropy addition of an stray system is a step of the extent of an irreversibility of the procedure undergone by the system. The information of an stray system ever increases and becomes a upper limit at the province of equilibrium. When the system is at equilibrium any imaginable alteration information would be zero.33. Reversible and Irreversible Procedures:A reversible procedure ( ideal procedure ) is one which is performed in such a manner that at the decision of the procedure, both the system and milieus may be restored to their initial provinces, with out bring forthing any alterations in the remainder of the existence. Let the stare of a system be represented by A and allow the system be taken to province B by following the way AB. If the system and besides milieus are restored to their initial provinces and no alteration in the existence is produced, so the procedure AiB will be reversible procedure. In the contrary procedure the system has to be taken from province B to A by following the same way BiA ( P.K. NAG ) . Any irreversible ( natural ) procedure carried out with a finite gradient is an irreversible procedure. A reversible procedure, which consists of a sequence of equilibrium provinces, is an idealised conjectural procedure.Figure ( 16 ) : Reversible procedure ( P.K. NAG ) .33. Dynamicss: Chemical reaction rates, half lives:Half-life is the period of clip it takes for a substance undergoing decay to diminish by half. The name originally was used to depict a feature of unstable atoms ( radioactive decay ) , but may use to any measure which follows a set-rate decay. The original term, dating to 1907, was â€Å" half-life period † , which was later shortened to â€Å" half-life † sometime in the early 1950s. Half-lives are really frequently used to depict measures undergoing exponential decay-for illustration radioactive decay-where the half life is changeless over the whole life of the decay, and is a characteristic unit ( a natural unit of graduated table ) for the exponential decay equation. However, a half life can besides be defined for non-exponential decay procedures, although in these instances the half life varies throughout the decay procedure. For a general debut and description of exponential decay, see the article exponential decay. For a general debut and description of non-exponential decay, see the article rate jurisprudence. An exponential decay procedure can be described by any of the undermentioned three tantamount expression: where N0: is the initial measure of the thing that will disintegrate ( this measure may be measured in gms, moles, figure of atoms, etc. ) , National trust: is the measure that still remains and has non yet decayed after a clip T, t1 / 2: is the half life of the decaying measure, I„ : is a positive figure called the mean life-time of the decaying measure, I » : is a positive figure called the decay invariable of the decaying measure.34. Temperature, force per unit area and i?„G:Gibbs equation shows the relation between force per unit area, temperature, and the alteration in free energy. The equation below shows that relation. G ( P, T ) = U + pV a?’ TS which is the same as: G ( P, T ) = H a?’ TS where: Uracil: is the internal energy ( SI unit: J ) P: is force per unit area ( SI unit: pascal ) Volt: is volume ( SI unit: M3 ) Thymine: is the temperature ( SI unit: K ) Second: is the information ( SI unit: J per K ) Hydrogen: is the heat content ( SI unit: J )35. Information and Disorder:Work is a macroscopic construct. Work involves orderly gesture of molecules as in the enlargement or compaction of a gas. The kinetic energy and possible energy of a system represent orderly signifiers of energy. The kinetic energy of a gas is due to the co-ordinated gesture of all the molecules with the same mean speed in the same way. The possible energy is due to vantage place taken by the molecules or supplantings of molecules from their normal place. It may province approximately that the information of a system is a step of the grade of molecular upset bing in the system.Figure ( 17 ) : Information and upset ( ) .36. Osmotic force per unit area / Arrhenius Law:The Arrhenius equation is a simple, but unusually accurate, expression for the temperature dependance of the rate invariable, and hence, rate of a chemical reaction. The equation was foremost proposed by the Dutch chemist J. H. new wave ‘t Hoff in 1884 ; five old ages subsequently in 1889, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius provided a physical justification and reading for it. Nowadays it is best seen as an empirical relationship. [ 2 ] It can be used to pattern the temperature-variance of diffusion coefficients, population of crystal vacancies, creep rates, and many other thermally-induced processes/reactions. A historically utile generalisation supported by the Arrhenius equation is that, for many common chemical reactions at room temperature, the reaction rate doubles for every 10 grade Celsius addition in temperature ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . In short, the Arrhenius equation gives â€Å" the dependance of the rate changeless K of chemical reactions on the temperature T ( in absolute temperature, such as Ks or grades Rankine ) and activation energy Ea, as shown below:37. Partition maps:In statistical mechanics, the divider map Z is an of import measure that encodes the statistical belongingss of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium. It is a map of temperature and other parametric quantities, such as the volume enveloping a gas. Most of the aggregative thermodynamic variables of the system, such as the entire energy, free energy, information, and force per unit area, can be expressed in footings of the divider map or its derived functions. There are really several different types of divider maps, each matching to different types of statistical ensemble ( or, equivalently, different types of free energy. ) The canonical divider map applies to a canonical ensemble, in which the system is allowed to interchange heat with the environment at fixed temperature, volume, and figure of atoms. The expansive canonical divider map applies to a expansive canonical ensemble, in which the system can interchange both heat and atoms with the environment, at fixed temperature, volume, and chemical potency. Other types of divider maps can be defined for different fortunes ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . pi: indicate atom impulse. eleven: indicate atom places. d3: is a stenography notation functioning as a reminder that the pi and eleven are vectors in three dimensional infinite.38. Le Chatelier ‘s rule for Temperature:In 1884, the Gallic Chemist Henri Le Chatelier suggested that equilibrium systems tend to counterbalance for the effects of unhinging influences. When a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium place will switch in the way which tends to minimise, or counteract, the consequence of the perturbation ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) ..If the concentration of a solute reactant is increased, the equilibrium place displacements to utilize up the added reactants by bring forthing more merchandises. If the force per unit area on an equilibrium system is increased, so the equilibrium place displacements to cut down the force per unit area. If the volume of a gaseous equilibrium system is reduced ( tantamount to an addition in force per unit area ) so the equilibrium place displacements to increase the volume ( tantamount to a lessening in force per unit area ) If the temperature of an endothermal equilibrium system is increased, the equilibrium place displacements to utilize up the heat by bring forthing more merchandises. If the temperature of an exothermal equilibrium system is increased, the equilibrium place displacements to utilize up the heat by bring forthing more reactants.39. Colligative belongingss:Colligative belongingss are the belongingss of the solution based on the figure of molecules per unit volume of the solution. Colligative belongingss include the vapor force per unit area, boiling and stop deading point, and osmotic force per unit area ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . The vapor force per unit area of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor force per unit area of each chemical constituent and the mole fraction of the constituent nowadays in the solution. The boiling temperature of the solution before making the vapour stage, the freeze point is the lowest temperature of the solution before it transferred to solid province. The osmotic force per unit area of a dilute solution at changeless temperature is straight relative to its concentration. The osmotic force per unit area of a solution is straight relative to its absolute temperature.40. Information and the Clausius inequality:The 2nd jurisprudence of thermodynamics leads to the definition of a new belongings called information, a quantitative step of microscopic upset for a system. Entropy is a step of energy that is no longer available to execute utile work within the current environment. To obtain the working definition of information and, therefore, the 2nd jurisprudence, allow ‘s deduce the Clausius inequality. See a heat reservoir giving up heat to a reversible heat engine, which in bend gives up heat to a piston-cylinder device as shown below ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .Figure ( 18 ) : Piston-cylinder device.