Sunday, December 29, 2019

Essay on The Harmful Effects Of Discrimination And...

Discrimination and Segregation have both had many harmful effects on society in the past and exist when individuals are treated unfairly because of their particular race, gender, age, ethnic group, physical disability, or religion. Discrimination and segregation both poison the atmosphere of trust that we need in order to live peacefully. In the video Separate but Equal;, there are many incidences to prove that racism, segregation, and discrimination all have negative effects. The three most prominent effects of discrimination and segregation combined are Inferiority, fear, and anger. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Inferiority is a major issue when discussing the effects of discrimination and segregation. In the Plessy vs. Ferguson†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Fear is another result of discrimination and segregation. Segregation pushes the dominant group to believe they are superior to the other and justify their actions through false stereotypes, favored treatment, and excuses. Because of their actions the subordinate group develops feelings of fear and dislike for the dominant group. Through the subordinate groups fears and dislikes for the dominant group it may lead to violence in order to overcome the limitations of segregation. Another form of fear relating to segregation and discrimination is when the subordinate group attempts to overcome segregation. The dominant group then fears that they will loose power and it may result in violence as well. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Anger is yet another result of discrimination and segregation. Anger is felt by both the blacks and the civil rights leaders who helped in the case. When one is treated unfairly it is only natural to be angry and defensive. When the black children who had been treated unequally grew up they found a better understanding of the world around them and the issues relating to segregation and discrimination. These children who had been treated unfairly all of their lives were angry that they grew up with that. They realized that they were pushed too hard too early. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Discrimination and segregation both have many negativeShow MoreRelatedSegregated African American Children Essay1050 Words   |  5 PagesChildren From the 1880s to about the mid 1960s segregation had taken over American cities and towns. Segregation is the act of setting someone or something apart from other people or things. In America, African Americans were segregated from White people. Segregation was a result of the abolishment of slavery twenty-five years before. Whites still wanted to feel superior to the Blacks, and without slavery to chain them down, they decided to begin segregation by establishing Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow lawsRead MoreSegregated Children in the United States Essay1689 Words   |  7 PagesChildren From the 1880s to about the mid 1960s segregation had taken over American cities and towns. Segregation is the act of setting someone or something apart from other people or things. In America, African Americans were segregated from White people. Segregation was a result of the abolishment of slavery twenty-five years before. Whites still wanted to feel superior to the Blacks, and without slavery to chain them down, they decided to begin segregation by establishing Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow lawsRead MoreDiscrimination Against Blacks Or Races Of Darker Skin Tones1212 Words   |  5 PagesIn other words, discrimination against blacks or races of darker skin tones is a learned behavior from an early age and results in the ignorance of thinking anyone with skin of a darker tone is unwanted in society. Over generations, it is clear to see that society portrays people with darker skin tones to have negative images which leads to low self-esteem. Low self-esteem then leads to social skills being hindered due to the fact that an individual feels insufficient or senses they are viewed asRead MoreThe Nation Of Islam And African Americans949 Words   |  4 Pagesworld domination. These two examples of the Nation of Islam slandering Christianity and Judaism are only two of the many examples of slander. The Nation of Islam created an us vs. them mentality. This mentality is dangerous and can have disastrous effect on society. The hatred can lead to conflicts and wars. Along with denouncing any religion other than Islam, they denounce anyone that is not African American. This is the second reason that the movement was unacceptable. The Nation of Islam usedRead MoreRacism : Racism And Racial Discrimination1425 Words   |  6 Pagesof discrimination that are unintentional, such as making assumptions about preferences or abilities of others based on racial stereotypes, whether to include symbolic or institutionalized forms of discrimination such as the circulation of ethnic stereotypes through the media, and whether to include the sociopolitical dynamics of social stratification that sometimes have a racial component. In sociology and psychology, some definitions include only consciously malignant forms of discrimination. SomeRead More Differences that Divide Essay1201 Words   |  5 Pagesand exclusion on the basis of ethnicity, religion, and lifestyle as a means of dividing the population into clearly defined, mutually exclusive groups. This underlying expression of discrimination serves as a modern critical analysis against society’s prevalent tenets of inequality. The first form of discrimination, most significant to the character Hassan, is done on the basis of ethnicity. As Edward Hower comments in â€Å"The Servant†, The Kite Runner’s depiction of Afghanistan is frighteningly â€Å"tenseRead MoreMomma’s Decision in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings762 Words   |  3 PagesAngelou’s childhood she was constantly surrounded by segregation and racism all around her. The segregation in Angelou’s hometown was so complete that for a very many years she had never seem a white person. The discrimination in this town also very high and Momma believed that the children should not be raised in this harmful environment. This contention influenced Momma greatly because she believed that in the larger cities the discrimination would be lessened. The Ku Klux Klan was also activeRead MoreTriumph Of The Right : George Wallace, Richard Nixon, And The American Revolution1459 Words   |  6 Pagesmovements. In the excerpt à ¢â‚¬Å"Triumph of the Left: Sixties Revolution and The Revolution in Manners† Kenneth Cmiel from the University of Iowa shows how the era of the sixties altered and affected the morals of many Americans when they encountered discrimination, hatred, and inequality. Along with that, Dan T. Carter carefully analyzes the political outcomes of the Presidential campaign of the 1960’s and it’s victory in the excerpt â€Å"Triumph of the Right: George Wallace, Richard Nixon, and the CritiqueRead MoreThoreau And King s Ideas On Civil Disobedience1267 Words   |  6 Pagesessay â€Å"Civil Disobedience† which explains his idea that the government is much more harmful than helpful and that man has the right to disobey the government when he feels it is being unjust, in his case it was slavery, American Imperialism, and the Mexican-American War. Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929, 64 years after slavery was abolished, but America was still a racist country. A co untry made up of segregation of blacks from whites. In 1963 King wrote a letter while incarcerated defending hisRead MoreCauses Of The Civil Rights Movement954 Words   |  4 Pagestimes were hard on African Americans. Even though at the time they were considered free, they were often criticized and discriminated against. Finally, shootings, brutality, and unfair treatment were enough. In an effort to end racial segregation and discrimination against African-Americans all over the country, they took a stand. This was known as the Civil Rights Movement. There were many interesting events that caused this movement. The three main causes that lead up to the Civil Rights Movement

Saturday, December 21, 2019

John Lewis Gaddis s The Cold War - 1414 Words

John Lewis Gaddis, is a leading American Historian of the Cold War. He is the Professor of history at Yale University. He is already the author of six books on the same subject. The Cold War: A New History, however, has been written on a less cosmic level. He has distilled a life time of research into this short but comprehensive book. He has given new avenues to old controversies in worldly and stylish, yet direct and plain-spoken manner. The book offers a lot of summaries to intricate historical issues and provides new avenues of thinking about conflict which arose out of pre-emption and ended in the hope for the world. The cold war in the author’s account was both unavoidable and essential at the same time. The Soviet empire and its allies could not be pushed back but they had to be restricted to move any further. The consequential confrontation lasted forty years. A lot of wealth, resources and time were exhausted on nuclear weapons and the watchful new strategic thinking. To a certain extent this was the reason that there were no major wars, although there were a number of intimidating confrontations. Eventually, thanks to greater resources, a better political and economic model, and the initiative of a few good men—the right side was victorious. Since then, new theatres involving a lot of complications have arisen, but we can at least be grateful to have said goodbye to that ever threatening conflict. The author does not try to defend all his past judgments. In 1987 heShow MoreRelatedEssay about Was Truman Responsible for the Cold War?1318 Words   |  6 Pages â€Å"Was Truman Responsible for the Cold War†, well, according to author Arnold A. Offner, his simplistic answer is an obvious â€Å"yes.† â€Å"Taking Sides† is a controversial aspect of the author’s interpretation for justifying his position and perception of â€Å"Truman’s† actions. This political approach is situated around the â€Å"Cold War† era in which the author scrutinizes, delineates, and ridicules his opponents by claiming â€Å"I have an ace in the hole and one showing† (SoRelle 313). Both authors provide theRead MoreThe European Dimension Of The Cold War1458 Words   |  6 PagesThe Cold War between two rival super powers – the young United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – was an inevitable one. The rela tionship between the former war allies had begun to dissolve during the Second World War and eventually came to blows in 1947. First, it’s important to note that the Cold War was something that was only between the USA and the USSR is a fallacy. David Reynolds’ piece titled The European Dimension to the Cold War is a historiographical pieceRead MoreWhat Were The Key Of The Cold War? Essay1409 Words   |  6 PagesWhat were the key factors that lead to the Cold War? From any historical event, there is always different presentations of the same facts. In every subject, an author’s opinion or point of view can completely change the story. In this paper I will be focus on highlighting the most significant factors various authors have proposed led to the Cold War. There are three viewpoints on what on what were the significant factors that led to the Cold War. There is the Orthodox viewpoint, which blames SovietRead MoreAnalysis Of The Cold War : A New History By John Lewis Gaddis2049 Words   |  9 PagesThe Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis The Cold War: A New History written by John Lewis Gaddis (a professor at Yale University who wrote other books such as The United States and the Origins of the Cold War and Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security) delivers a summarized, yet skewed interpretation of what had happened during the era known as the Cold War. Throughout the book, the author attempts to provide history of the Cold War, whileRead MoreIb Hl History Ia1632 Words   |  7 PagesHL History Internal Assessment Was President Ronald Reagan the reason for the Cold War’s conclusion? Word Count: 1,634 Was President Ronald Reagan the reason for the Cold War’s conclusion? A. Plan of Investigation This investigation focuses on the impact that President Ronald Reagan had on ending the Cold War between the United States of America and the Soviet Union during the 1980’s. The use of historian argumentation, primary sources, such as Ronald Reagan’s Address to the Nation on DefenseRead MoreThe Cold War And The Soviet Union1462 Words   |  6 PagesWhen the term â€Å"Cold War† was popularised to refer to post-war tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict became a source of heated controversy among historians. In particular, who was responsible for the breakdown of Soviet-U.S. relations after the Second World War? During World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union were allied against the Axis powers. However, in the years that followed the end of World War II, the allianceRead MoreThe Causes of the Cold War Essay2058 Words   |  9 PagesIn discussions of the causes of the Cold War, one controversial issue has been the question: who caused the Cold War? On the one hand, traditional historians argue that the leaders of the Soviet Union are to blame. On the other hand, revisionists contend that the Western leaders are to blame. Others even maintain that it was both the Western and the Soviet leaders who are equally responsible for the development of the Cold War. My own view is that the Western leaders were responsible for protectingRead MoreWhat Similarities and Differences Are There Between Historical and Scientific Explanations?1508 Words   |  7 Pagesexplanations one can see similar applications of empirical evidence. For example, historians such as John Lewis Gaddis came up with theories about the cold war. From observing policies of the United States and the Soviet Union, Gaddis have formulated theories about spheres of influences, and how these spheres of influences led to rising tension between the two super powers and eventually to the cold war. One may conclude that this explanation was formed by analyzing historical evidence such as foreignRead MoreMilitary And Political Tension During The Cold War997 Words   |  4 Pages Cold War is the name given to military and political tension during 1947-1991, between the two countries that emerged as the world super powers at the end of the World War II, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Quite a few events took place during the cold war that shape the country and its foreign policies during the cold war and a few years after it. Some of the events or policies that took place in the 1950’s pertaining to the cold war are: The Warsaw pact, the invention of U2Read MoreEssay on America’s Role in the Cold War903 Words   |  4 PagesAmerica’s role in the Cold War After World War II, the United States had effectively become the most powerful and influential country in the world both militarily and politically. During America’s rise to power, however, hostilities mounted between America and the Soviet Union, resulting in a fierce rivalry. The Cold War, which never involved direct military confrontations between the two nations, involved of the struggle to contain the spread of communism, extreme anti-communist attitudes in

Friday, December 13, 2019

Book Report Free Essays

The book under analysis is the work by Frey James My Friend Leonard. This choice was spurred by controversial reaction it provoked among the public and literary critics. This novel is, actually, a sequel to the book A Million Little Pieces published a year before. We will write a custom essay sample on Book Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now The genre of My Friend Leonard may be defined as a memoir though, as the author himself admits, it contains a certain degree of fictional elements. Frey James is an extraordinary figure in modern American literature. His own biography of a person who experienced problems with alcoholism, drug addiction, and even being a convicted criminal provides Frey with the manifold material which he successfully employed in the memoir. The main character of the memoir is obviously author’s namesake James who serves time in a prison. After jail release James returns to Lilly, his girlfriend, to Chicago but the life outside the prison is far from harmony. James finds his girlfriend dead after committing a suicide overnight. Being struck by this dreadful discovery the main character still does not go to seeds; he decides to stay in Chicago and takes up job of a bouncer in Chicago pubs. However feeling of rage and the weight of reality makes James be scared of relapse thus he appeals to his old friend Leonard. Since their meeting the story assumes its main plotline – the relations between two men, the relations which border upon the friendship and father-son bonds. Leonard is an Italian mobster who offered James to be his â€Å"stepfather† when they both where in rehabilitation: â€Å"I would like you to be my son.† Leonard gladly relieves his friend and â€Å"son† and helps him to get him on his feet. As the time lapses the scene of action together with the main character transfers from Chicago to Los Angeles. James changes his activity. Now he is a writer. He still maintains close relationship with Leonardo, who remains his faithful friend and tutelary father. The relations that develop between them are presented from deeply psychological side. The author aims to show the deep feeling of people who far from ideal figures still are human and exhibit the best example of the relations called friendship. The depiction of feelings expressed to animals is as masterfully executed as the feelings among humans. Thus while reading the passage where James takes his dog to the hospital to put it to sleep and the farewell scene makes the reader feel the same emotions. â€Å"The vet inserts the needle, depresses the plunger. Cassius yelps like a little puppy, my big tough pitbull feels the sting, I hold him as his blood courses through his veins I hold him as he stumbles, as he falls, I hold him as he dies. I look into his eyes and I tell him I love him and I’ll miss him and I’m so so so sorry. He dies in my arms and I hold him and I cry, I cry, I cry.† Returning to the main character and his friend Leonard we witness how their relations arise to its peak point and suddenly Leonardo vanishes. After insistent search James finally finds Leonard and learns that Leonard is gay, suffers from AIDS, and lives his last days. James remains with him and spends these few days near Leonard. Speaking about the mood left after reading the story, it is a deep impression created by its emotionality and at the same time this emotionality at some moments seems exaggerated not typically for that kind of genre. Nevertheless the style does not allow the story turning into melancholy narrative. Frey writes in short simple sentences, often neglects punctuation and thus creates easy reading that develops fluently. As a result we receive favourably distinguishable prose in the genre of memoir but with flavour of captivating fiction. Reference: Frey James (2005). My Friend Leonard. New York: Riverhead. How to cite Book Report, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Fraud Prevention and Management Recommendations free essay sample

The purpose of this Fraud Prevention Plan is to set out the approach to dealing with fraud risk within our organization. In order to prevent the types of frauds that have already occurred within our organization it will be necessary to create â€Å"a culture of honesty, openness, and assistance†¦.. fraud prevention is where the big savings occur† (Albrecht, Albrecht, Albrecht, Zimbelman, 2012, p. 03). What is required is the implementation of a comprehensive hiring, fraud, and ethics training program with strong controls, with punitive treatment of fraud offenders. â€Å"Research confirms that anyone can commit fraud. Fraud perpetrators usually can’t be distinguished from other people on the basis of demographic or psychological characteristics. † (Albrecht et al. 2012, p. 33). The value of an effective fraud prevention program requires several components. The lack of fraud prevention leads to enormous risk. The corporation will need to install processes and controls to ensure that honest people are hired. When candidates are going through our interview process they will need to be thoroughly vetted on the accuracy of their work history, education, and stated accomplishments. In addition to the standard practiced of contacting references provided by the candidate, these referenced individuals will be asked to provide additional references. The result of checking references provided by the initial reference will in many instances allow for greater insight into the true character of the candidate. The Director of Human Resources should investigate the potential of having a pre-employment Business Ethics Assessment completed and evaluated for each potential new employee. The assessment will measure each candidate for knowledge of the application of ethical principles in various workplace situations, such as whistle-blowing, conflicts of interest, policies, ethical issues, and honesty (SHL Global, 2012). Consistent use of such assessments pre-hire will enable the firm to hire the most honest people. Criminal and credit history background checks are a critical component to our proposed fraud prevention plan, enabling the firm to identify â€Å"high risk† individuals prior to extending an offer of employment. In addition to stringent hiring practices the corporation will institute a fraud awareness training program for all employees as part of our efforts to create a â€Å"low-fraud atmosphere†. (Albrecht et. al. 2012, p. 103). Senior management must establish a positive work environment by creating a formal code of conduct that sets the expectation for high ethics, stating what is and is not acceptable within our enterprise. Section 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a â€Å"Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers† that requires that every public company to create, disseminate to all employees, and religiously enforce its ethical code (Albrecht et. al. 2012, p. 107). Ideally the Code of Ethics should be reviewed and signed by all employees on an annual basis. Albrecht et al. (2012, p. 106) provides an example of a company issuing small cards to every employee to carry on their person. The card lists several reporting options for employees who suspect fraud is taking place. One of the options to report suspected fraud is for employees to contact an external, anonymous ‘hotline’ to communicate their suspicions. These actions combined with regular messages on fraud awareness and non-tolerance will help to decrease our incidents of fraud loss. Executive and mid-level managers need to create and preserve an open-door policy as an important element to assist in our fraud avoidance program. Easy access (open door) policies prevent fraud and allow managers to become aware of employee pressures and their possible rationalizations that contribute to fraudulent activities. Many times employees commit fraud because â€Å"they feel they have no one to talk to† (Albrecht, et. al 2001, p. 111). Management must be open to honest discussions with employees about issues concerning the employee, and be ready to recommend counseling or an approved corporate Employee Assistance Program (EAP). EAP’s can help troubled employees with problems caused by gambling, substance abuse, money issues, health, family, and other pressures that enable them to rationalize fraudulent activities. A good internal controls system will prevent the type of fraud the firm has previously experienced. According to the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO), the CEO has ultimate responsibility for any internal controls system. â€Å"More than any other individual, the chief executive sets the tone at the top that affects integrity and ethics and other factors of a positive control environment† (COSO, 1992). The control environment will set the overall tone of the organization that is established by senior management and runs throughout the management structure. A good accounting system is another important element of the control system to provide timely information used for decision-making. The Internal Auditor, Audit Committee, Director of Corporate Security, and Corporate Legal Council will need to work together to identify methods to assess risk and implement the appropriate controls. Basically there are only five types of control activities: segregation of duties, authorizations, physical controls, independent checks, and documentation† (Albrecht et. al. 2012, p. 114). The first three controls are preventative controls while independent checks and documentation are detective controls. Once established these controls need to be monitored and tested regularly for effectiveness. Had these controls been in place earlier the recent fraudulent activities of inventory theft, kickbacks, and enhanced earnings might have been prevented, or at least been identified earlier resulting in a reduced loss to the firm. The company has experienced prior internal control weaknesses, which strongly contributes to creating a high fraud environment. â€Å"When internal controls are absent or overridden, the risk of fraud is great† (Albrecht et al. 2012 p. 143). The Director of Internal Audit working closely with the Audit Committee can create and implement internal controls consisting of the control environment, accounting system, and control procedures. Aspects of the internal controls will be segregation of duties, physical safeguards, independent checks and monitoring, proper authorizations, documents, and records working in conjunction with a robust accounting system. Resilient internal controls are an important deterrent to fraud. Strong internal control can prevent or detect most types of misappropriations of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. Some examples of internal controls are mandatory vacations and job rotations, surveillance techniques, management review, segregation of duties, password protection on computer files, and physical safeguards on physical assets. An information system with a poor audit trail provides opportunities to conceal fraud. Audit trails need to be incorporated in our internal control system. â€Å"Close monitoring facilitates early detection† (Albrecht, et. al. 2012, p. 118) and can discourage fraudulent activities as employees realize they are being monitored and are loath to be exposed as being a thief. Similarly, having a monitoring system combined with a â€Å"whistle blowing† program will allow the organization to detect frauds early while losses are minimal. Our whistle blowing system needs to provide for anonymity, be easily accessed by employees, and ideally be managed by an independent entity, i. e. legal counsel or an outside third party organization. Finally the whistle blower program will feature prompt follow up on all reported frauds with corrective action implemented promptly to encourage additional use of the program. One of the most important factors of our program to eliminate fraud is the expectation of severe punishment. â€Å"One of the greatest deterrents to dishonesty is fear of punishment† says Albrecht. Simply terminating the offender is not significant as â€Å"real punishment involves having to tell family members and friends about the dishonest behavior† (Albrecht, et. al, 2012, p. 119). Legal Counsel must develop a robust prosecution policy that is publicized to all employees frequently about how unauthorized borrowing or theft of company assets will not be tolerated. These publications need to be depersonalized to disguise the identity of the perpetrator(s), to avoid potential slander and/or libel litigation (Albrecht et al. 2012 p. 123). The best way to prevent negative stories in the media is to avoid frauds in the first place. â€Å"A good Code of Ethics combined with a strong policy of punishment helps eliminate rationalizations† Albrecht states, and will prevent the frauds and resulting negative publicity the Board of Directors wishes to avoid. However all of the above actions need to be enhanced by proactive fraud auditing. Fraud auditing activity will create awareness in employees that their activities are subject to review at any time. A vigorous fraud auditing program involves four major steps: (1) identifying fraud risk exposures, (2) identifying the fraud symptoms of these exposures, (3) building audit programs to proactively search for symptoms and exposures, and (4) investigating fraud symptoms identified. A comprehensive approach to create programs and policies that prevent fraud require an understanding of the Fraud Triangle (Albrecht, et. al. 2012, p. 34) and the motivations that cause employees to commit theft. Engaging policies to prevent fraud will require a commitment starting from senior management and integrating throughout the organization. Management needs to establish a widely publicized policy of being notified when an employee who is not prosecuted for committing fraud, versus being notified only when an employee is being prosecuted. Senior managers must be the leaders of ethical behavior. â€Å"Top management cannot accept expensive perks and gifts from vendors and others and not expect employees to do the same† (Albrecht et al. 2012, p. 123). Employees must see that managers are setting the example for fraud avoidance. They need to be aware that management from the Board of Directors, top and middle managers, and control groups such as auditing committees, Corporate Security, and legal / regulatory compliance managers consider fraud avoidance a high priority. Significant time and resources need to be directed to instituting a comprehensive fraud education initiative that includes not only our internal workforce but also all vendors. Our plan should be reviewed consistently, especially after significant industry or corporate events such as layoffs, a hiring surge, or significant growth). The most comprehensive fraud prevention plan can be overtaken by fluctuations in the enterprise environment if the plan’s effectiveness isn’t regularly monitored and adapted to these changes. Monitoring via internal and/or external auditors, combined with education and whistle blowing programs will create a low fraud tolerance environment. â€Å"Employees and vendors who know that an effective monitoring and reporting system is in place are much less likely to commit fraud than are individuals who work in high fraud environments† (Albrecht et al. 2012, p. 123). Reporting discovered fraud activity to management will include Corporate Security, the Audit Committee, and the Human Resources Director, with notifications to the CEO and Legal Counsel. When fraud is reported or otherwise discovered the lead investigators will be assigned by the Director of Corporate Security working in conjunction with the Director of Internal Audit. Once the investigation is complete and a fraud event has been confirmed, a strong prosecution is recommended. Possible referral to the appropriate law enforcement agency(s) will be considered. The single greatest factor in deterring dishonest acts is the fear of punishment† Albrecht et al. 2012 p. 124). It is not possible to have a â€Å"zero fraud† environment. Stealing inexpensive office supplies is fraud. Due to the low costs these frauds are not considered seriously. However, once a fraud is perpetrated without a reaction the fraudster will continue to commit more frauds of ever-increasing magnitude. Albrecht et al. 2012 states â€Å"gone are the days when prosecution resulted in adverse publicity. Most people realize that fraud exists in every organization. (p 124). Should fraudulent activity be revealed and an investigation launched by Corporate Security and/or Internal Audit managers, there are four types of evidence that should be accumulated (Albrecht et al. 2012, p 80). This evidence may include testimony gathered from employees via interviews, interrogations, and honesty tests. Documentary evidence will include written or electronic materials. Physical evidence such as letters, purchase orders, shipping and inventory records, and any other tangible items associated with the dishonest acts. Finally personal observation of suspected fraudsters may be incorporated by the investigators (invigilation, surveillance, and covert operations) to augment the legal case against the perpetrator(s) of the fraud. Albrecht et al. (2012) cautions â€Å"because of the sensitive nature of fraud investigations, fraud investigators must exercise extreme care in how investigations are conducted, who knows about the investigations, and the way investigations are described. † Predication must exist before any fraud investigation is initiated. The goal of any fraud is to uncover the truth, and to confirm or deny if the suspicions of fraud are accurate. The potential for a suspected fraud to be an unintentional error or mistake by an employee is significant enough to avoid hasty conclusions without a vigorous investigation to confirm the facts of the suspected fraudulent activity. Disciplinary action may be taken against employees who are confirmed to have failed to comply with the company Code of Ethics, or violated any applicable law or regulation (American Express, 2006). Disciplinary measures will depend on the circumstances of the violation and will be applied in a manner consistent with the Company’s policies and/or any applicable laws. Termination is an option as is civil or criminal prosecution. In order to avoid false accusations, consideration will be given to whether or not a violation was intentional, as well as to the level of good faith shown by an employee in reporting the violation or in cooperating with any resulting investigation. Clear communication will be provided affirming that punitive action will be taken against any employee who directly participates in, authorizes, directs, approves of, conceals, or deliberately fails to report actions that violate the Code or applicable law or regulations. In addition, persons who violate any law during the course of their employment may be subject to criminal or civil penalties, as well as payment of civil damages to the Company or third parties. Preventing fraud is more cost effective than trying to recover assets after the fact. According to the 2012 Report to the Nations study published by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), a staggering 40 percent of organizations did not recover any of their losses (ACFE, 2012). An article in Business Finance in May 2008 (Skalak, 2008) stated that the average cost of one incident of fraud is $3 million. The three identified frauds committed within our organization can be estimated at $10 million. At a profit margin of 10% we would need an additional $100 million of top line revenue to recover from this theft! A fraud prevention plan, properly designed and implemented, will support our organization’s efforts to mitigate losses due to occupational fraud. These initiatives may not stop fraud from occurring altogether. However â€Å"organizations with active plans which include anti-fraud controls, report lower losses and faster detection† (Plante Moran, 2012). An effective fraud prevention program is crucial to our organization to enable the firm to deliver quality products and services to our clients, and to maintain the confidence of all stakeholders. The Board of Directors must understand the fraud and corruption risks that our business faces and ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, detect and respond quickly and appropriately to fraud and corruption. A timely approval by the Board to implement this fraud prevention initiative is strongly recommended.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Juvenile Crime Essays (548 words) - Crime, Criminology, Childhood

Juvenile Crime Reasons for Juvenile Crime One of the biggest problems, which the United States is faced with, is juvenile crime. The reason experts feel juveniles commit crimes is because of risk factors when they were younger but experts still have not found the main reason why juveniles commit crimes. Some risk factors associated with juvenile crime are poverty, repeated exposure to violence, drugs, easy access to firearms, unstable family life and family violence, delinquent peer groups, and media violence. Especially the demise of family life, the effect of the media on the juveniles today, and the increase of firearms available today have played a big role in the increase of juveniles crimes. The most common risk factor is the demise of the family life and the increase in family violence. Between 1976 and 1992 the number of juveniles living in poverty grew 42% and this caused an increase in crimes by juveniles. Many of these juvenile criminals have been abused or neglected and they also grew up in a single-parent household. Research has found that 53% of these children are more likely to be arrested, and 38% more likely to commit a violent crime as an adult, then their counterparts who did not suffer such abuse. The symptoms of child abuse are high levels of aggression and antisocial behavior and these children are twice as likely to become juvenile offenders. Also improper parental care has been linked to delinquency such as mothers who drink alcohol or take drugs during pregnancy cause their babies to grow up with learning disorders, a problem which leads them to be juvenile criminals. Another risk factor is the effect of the media on the juveniles of today. Before the time a child has reached seventh grade, the average child has witnessed 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence on the television. There is no doubt that heavy exposure to televised violence is one of the causes of aggressive behavior, crime and violence in society. Television violence affects youngsters of all ages, of both genders, at all economic levels, and all levels of intelligence. Long-term childhood exposure to television is a casual factor behind one half of the homicides committed by juveniles in the United States. The increased availability of guns has played a big part in escalating the number of crimes committed by juveniles. In Los Angeles juvenile delinquency cases involving weapon violation grew by 86% from 1988 to 1992, which was more then any other type of juvenile offense. According to a University of Michigan study found that 270,000 guns accompany secondary school students to class daily. This is startling because it shows how many more juveniles are carrying guns and the juvenile use of guns in homicides has increased from 65 to 80 percent from 1987 to 1991. The possession of firearms plays a big cause in the delinquency of children and is playing a bigger role in the crimes which juveniles commit. Another cause of the increase of juvenile crimes has been the effect of children seeing multiple murders and other acts of violence on the television. Finally the demise of the family life and the increase in family violence has been the biggest factor in the increase of juvenile crime. Legal Issues

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Is Scarifice What Hamlet Wanted English Literature Essay Essay Example

Is Scarifice What Hamlet Wanted English Literature Essay Essay Example Is Scarifice What Hamlet Wanted English Literature Essay Essay Is Scarifice What Hamlet Wanted English Literature Essay Essay that is all that you can trust for from Hamlet ; that he was above all else, true to himself.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Antony And Cleopatra Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Antony And Cleopatra - Essay Example However, I take strength to write this letter before my suicide (if you call it so) in order to reveal some of the most fundamental facts in the life of this obedient servant of Antony as well as my master. As you know, I have been highly acclaimed for my judgments about the people and events of our lives, which were normally detached and objective. Therefore, this letter of mine, which is the last one in my life, will also make judgments that are detached and objective and I do not have any tainted intentions or strategies to write this truthful letter. The Roman triumvirate, formed by Octavius Caesar (or Augustus Caesar), Antony, and Lepidus, ruled the Western world and, when Lepidus decided to leave the triumvirate, Caesar and Antony shared the power over the world. I, Domitius Enobarbus, was known as Antony's faithful right-hand man and I have been honest, down-to-earth and full of common sense all through my tenure as a high-ranking soldier in Antony's army. Most often, Antony f ailed to pay attention to my sensible advices which caused several mishaps in his life. To tell about Antony, he lived in Alexandria, Egypt with his mistress Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt, although he was married to Fluvia. Octavius Caesar (and even me for that matter) was disgusted at the lifestyle of Antony in Egypt. After the death of Fluvia of an illness, Antony left for home in Rome, at the request of Caesar who was annoyed by the wars caused by Antony's relatives. As a measure to amend the various types of tensions between the two, Caesar and Antony agreed upon the marriage of the latter to Caesar's sister Octavia. As I was greatly aware of the great obsession of Antony for the love of Cleopatra, I believed that this alliance would only cause disaster to Antony and his relation with Caesar. My thinking was proved right when Antony deserted Octavia rapidly after their marriage and returned to live with Cleopatra. As I understand now, this was the beginning of several tragic eve nts in the life of Antony and people close to him. Following Antony's abandonment of Octavia, Caesar was furious with the behavior of his partner and he decided to attack and regain control of Egypt from Antony and Cleopatra. This was a fatal decision as far as Antony was concerned, because Caesar's army was much more powerful and skillful compared to the army of Antony. I was sure that defeat of Antony was very close to him and I wished if Antony tried to make agreements with Caesar to stop the inevitable war. As I was sure that it was not possible, given the fact that Antony was very much passionate to Cleopatra, I decided to desert Antony, my best friend, and to join Caesar's army. However, I am now overcome with regret and remorse for leaving Antony, and I cannot bear the pain that I suffer now. Now, as I am near Caesar's headquarters, deserting my best friend in his tragic situation, I can do nothing else, but to end this pain. Death is the least penalty that I can make to the great mistake of my life and I should do at least this to make my mind happy.  

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Motivation and psychological contact on Media Company in China Essay

Motivation and psychological contact on Media Company in China - Essay Example Extrinsic motivation is external and involves employee’s rewards such as money and grades. Psychological contract refers to the existing mutual beliefs, perceptions and informal obligations between the employee and an employer. It is different from the formal written employment contract which generally identifies mutual duties and responsibilities. This paper seeks an understanding on the motivation and psychological contract among employees in China Digital Media Corporation. China is in the process of transforming its broadcasting policy that includes; conversion of television services from analogue to digital broadcasting system nationwide, improvement of the broadcasting policy and administration, reorganizing different companies which belong to the state into corporations which are market driven, and allowing foreign investors to participate in some specific areas in the media industry. Considering the above changes, China Digital Media Corporation main focus is to capita lize on the opportunities resulting from the expansion of broadcasting media and cable TV industry in china. To successfully attain this, the media company will need to motivate its employees and have an appropriate psychological contract in place. The workforce plays a key role in the achievement of established goals of the company. According to Costigan, et. al. (1998), motivation is a cognitive decision making process which initiates, energizes, directs and maintains a behaviour which is goal oriented. Motivational process begins with physiological or psychological need through which behaviour or drive aimed at a goal is activated. Managers, expect increased qualitative productivity from their employees. Employee’s behaviour is greatly influenced by their working environment. Individuals are motivated to work by different motivational factors. These include monetary factors such as; salaries and wages, bonus and incentives. There are also other non-monetary factors which i nclude; an employee status or job title, appreciation and recognition, delegation of authority, proper working conditions, job security, workers participation, cordial relations, good superiors, provision of training, proper job placements and promotions, good performance feedback, provision of welfare facilities and flexibility in the working hours. Motivation is of great importance to an organization in that; it increases efficiency, reduces absenteeism and employee turnover, improves the corporate image, improves employee’s morale, reduces accidents and facilitates initiative and innovation. China Digital Media Corporation will have to consolidate different motivational theories and models that influence employee’s motivation. Employees have varied needs depending on their demographics, circumstances, aspirations, affairs and personalities. Hygiene factors are important in that they eliminate job dissatisfaction. Employees in the media company expect to work in an e nvironment that is conducive, pleasant, respectful, productive, and promotes teamwork. For the media company to boost employee’s motivation, there has to be motivators such as interesting work, recognition, sense of achievement and advancements. In addition, employees should be treated fairly and be rewarded accordingly for their efforts. Perception of inequity among employees in the company results in poor inputs, and even others leaving the organization. Supervisors should also be keen to provide performance feedb

Monday, November 18, 2019

Get Write Existing Data Sources Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Get Write Existing Data Sources - Coursework Example The weakness of conducting field research is that it is highly subjective and therefore is weak in terms of reliability (Maxfield & Babbie, 2006). Another weakness is that there can be disagreements between researchers concerning the events or subjects of the research. My research is on illegal immigration and high crime rate in the United States of America. Based on my research proposal, the researchers will be collecting information regarding the perception of hate crimes and illegal immigrants from U.S. residents. Therefore, field research is definitely appropriate for this research proposal. The participants in the field will provide significant information regarding their perception about the issues concerning illegal immigration with special emphasis on social crime rates in the area where they live. Being a resident in that area, participants can provide first hand information regarding illegal immigration and how it affects their daily life. Field research will therefore help to gather both qualitative and quantitative data regarding illegal immigration and hate crimes from the residents of the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Inequalities in Bahamas

Inequalities in Bahamas Inequalities associated with class in the Bahamas One of the greatest tragedies in The Bahamas today, is that after decades of Majority Rule many are still beguiled by the illusion that constructs a superhighway of class equality. Alarmingly, many Bahamians appear to be oblivious to the underlying prejudicial rhetoric used by politicians, the prevailing class oriented mindset and the privileged minority who continue to steer and controlled the wealth and economic course of this country. Due to profound the inequalities associated with class in The Bahamas, there is a division between thousands of Bahamians economically, educationally and in the health care system. This division has had a significant effect on the social development of the Bahamas. It can be implied that class has become the architect of a national plutocracy that furnishes the wealthy, powers the elites and elevates the corporate masters to control and dominate the political and economic system of The Bahamas. As asserted by Author, Glinton Meicholas â€Å"This di visive sociological phenomenon is creeping quickly into Bahamian Society which will create another divide social class and Economics† (pg.2). In a class society there are three type of classes the upper class, the middle class and the lower class. According to Krieger and Moss, 1997, â€Å"since prehistory, all societies have perceived hierarchy among their members. Leaders and followers, strong and weak, rich and poor: social classifications are universal. Humans have invented numerous ways to classify people—by wealth, power, or prestige; by ability, education, or occupation; even by where they live† and this is seen in the Bahamas today. Krieger and Moss further stated that â€Å"the term social class originally referred to groups of people holding similar roles in the economic processes of production and exchange, such as landowner or tenant, employer or employee. Such positions correspond to different levels of status, prestige, and access to political power, but social class eventually took on a more generic meaning and came to refer to all aspects of a persons rank in the social hierarchy† (pg. 45). The upper class in The Bahamas is very diverse and consists of the old rich white Bahamians who were born into wealth and who control the countrys means of production, economic resources as well as land and capital, whereas, the middle class and the lower class are made of predominantly black Bahamians, whose acquisition of wealth is extremely limited. Even thought The Bahamas is viewed as one of the more stable Caribbean countries both politically and economically and continues to be listed among the top nations in the Caribbean for it Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP), high standard of living, and high per capita earnings there are still thousands who have low income and consumption levels, and low levels of human development in education and healthcare thus, contributing to poverty. Poverty according to the World Bank is defined as the inability of people to attain a minimum standard of living. The annual poverty line in the Bahamas is $2863 per person. Someone who lives on this line would be able to spend $7.84 per day on a basic diet (, 2400 calories per day) and non-food needs. According to The Bahamas Living Conditions Survey presented to Parliament on October 5, 2005, the Bahamas poverty rate stood at 9.3 percent or about 28,000 people half of whom are children, are living below the poverty line. National statistics Our national statistics record that 77% of the poorest people, those who fall in the bottom 20% of the country when it comes to income and expenditure, live in New Providence and Grand Bahamas, whereas, 91% of the wealthiest people also live in the aforementioned locations. Statistical data reveals that more that 75% of all poor Bahamian households have five or more members, an estimated 42% of poor heads of household have completed some secondary schooling, 34% of poor youth, ages 19- 24 are out of school and unemployed, 54% of people living in poor conditions do not have piped water, 33% lack access to a flush toilet, 58% of poor families rent rather than own their homes and 50% crowd more than three people into their bedroom. Among the more wealthy class in The Bahamas, there are higher rates of investment and capital formation, higher salaries and employment, more luxurious lifestyles and homes, more entrepreneurial activity, self-sustained economic growth, higher levels of savings and higher levels of consumption. The upper Bahamian class would have more natural asset, land, human assets, financial Assets, including access to credit, social assets, and greater influence on the Bahamas macro and micro economic policies and conditions. Their life expectancy, education, literacy and health provision would be higher than the other classes of society. Usually it is the upper class of society that controls the means of production and consumption. The middle class on the other hand would have moderate rates of investment and savings, average employment, medium salaries, and high levels of consumption. While their access to credit may be disparate compared to the upper class it is not limited. Additionally, th is class would also have some natural assets, land- though more generational than purchased, and their life expectancy, educational, health and literacy levels would be on a similar level as the upper class. The population of The Bahamas comprises of a sizeable number of underclass of citizens who are relegated to perform menial and labour intensive work. Their living environments take on the existence of a filthy, unmaintained and poorly sanitized ghetto. Unfortunately, these ghettos have forged chains that keep many of the local residents imprisoned since they lack the necessary wherewithal to elevate themselves or to escape the trenches of the ghetto, crime is rife, unemployment and the rate of illiteracy are high, the scores of high school dropouts staggering, and there is a sense of political disenfranchisement . In The Bahamas, every boy and girl enjoy equal access to education at all levels. However, equal access to education does not mean equal participation in education. While William Allin implies that Education is not the answer to the question but the means to the answer to all questions†, author Laurence J. Peter states that â€Å"Education is a method whereby one acquires a higher grade of prejudices†. Unfortunately, it is quite the popular belief in a wide cross section of society that we are a classless society and that class should not matter. Perhaps, it should not, but unfortunately, it is evident everywhere. In our education system inclusive of elementary school settings, and college settings, class is quite apparent. Statistically, the achievement gap between the lower class students in comparison to the upper and middle class students is relatively wide. It must be noted that social class including students family characteristics affects learning and has a great influence on the academic achievement of students even in elementary settings. This is substantiated when both the public school and private school exams result are compared. Students who attend private schools The majority of the students who attend private schools such as St. Anns High, Queens College, St. Augustines and St. Andrews are from the affluent / upper and middle class who have either a steady income or who just have money at their disposal. In contrast the students who are attending Government Schools usually have to struggle to get the materials needed or have to rely on the limited resource provided by the government who is subsidizing many of the private school through funding and ensuring that the materials needed are there at their disposal. This in itself speaks of the inequalities and the injustices in the educational system that is the apparatus responsible for producing the nations future leaders. Because of the inequalities that exist in our health care system, many of the poor, especially the elderly meet their demised due to the mere fact that they can not afford proper medical assistance. These persons are made to rely on the Public Health care systems which at time can not carry it own weight or meet the demands of the general, and frequently lack the doctor prescribed medication needed for persons to get well. In other instances the medication is either expired or the public hospital and clinic is just not in the position to render the services required. On the other hand, the elite or the socialite of the country can afford to go abroad or seek medical attention at the private medical facilities such as Doctors Hospital. Alder and Steward paints an accurate picture of this relationship, comparing societal classes (or the resources associated with them) to be like rungs on a ladder. Our relative positions on the ladder, â€Å"predicts how long you live and how healthy you are during your lifetime†. (2007: 4) They further states that ‘one of the major issues of the differences between social classes in the U.S. is that the distances between the top and bottom rungs are massive. A perfect example of the massive, who at times are considered to be the under privilege attends the Princess Margret Hospital and are made to feel like second class citizens. Whereas, those who are considered the privilege are treated as first class citizens and are able to seek medical attention at Doctors hospital. Adler and Stuart goes on to state that â€Å"people at each social class level tend to have different, associated health levels. People in the lowest social classes are at greatest risk of dying before age 65 and are sicker throughout their lives, people in the middle class are healthier than the lowest class, but not as healthy as those in the highest class (Adler Steward: 5). Paradoxically, many in the lower class of society can and could have achieved national leadership in many different spheres if they were not disadvantaged and stagnated by our deeply embedded and covert class system. It would be untruthful to say that our nation has not made significant strides in dismantling the socio-economic barriers of the class system; however, the inequality gap is continually widening and the bonds of the class system becoming even stronger. In our foremost areas of society, such as business and politics, there is still the covert prevailing class system that endorses the son or daughter of an old wealthy Bahamian to carry the mantle of and leadership. It is imperative, therefore, that given our history of slavery, and colonialism, that we begin to place collaborative efforts to provide each citizen with equal opportunity, both social, educational and in the health care arena. As the old say goes â€Å"A generation which ignores history has no past and no fu ture†. The greatest lesson we can learn from the past . . . is that freedom is at the core of every successful nation in the world.(Frederick Chiluba) therefore, it is imperative to understand how the class system deprives citizens of their rights to thrive, to prosper and to participate in the socio-economic development of The Bahamas. References (2006). Central Bank of The Bahamas Annual Report. Central Bank of The Bahamas (2007). Central Bank of The Bahamas Annual Report. Central Bank of The Bahamas Alder, Nancy, Judith Steward. Reaching for a Healthier Life. (2007). The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. Corcoran, M. (1995). Rags to rags: Poverty and mobility in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology. (1995) 21:237-267. Austin, M. J. (2004). Changing Welfare Services. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc., ISBN: 0-7890-2313-X. Central Bank of The Bahamas. (n.d). Monetary policy in the Bahamas: Overview of the financial services sector. Retrieved September, 2009. /policy_overview.php. Citizenship, Community Empowerment, and Advocacy. Office of Refugee Resettlement. 2001 Dec 28. Retrieved September , 2009 from Coley et al. 2007. â€Å"Maternal Welfare and Employment Experiences and Adolescent Well-Being: Do Mothers Human Capital Characteristics Matter?† Children Youth Services Review, 29,p. 193-215. Commonwealth Fund (CMWF), Analysis of Minority Health Reveals Persistent, Widespread Disparities, press release (May 14, 1999). Commonwealth of the Bahamas labour force and household income report 2005. The Department of Statistics. (2005). David, B. (2003). Rethinking the Sociological Measurement of Poverty, Social Forces Vol. 81 No.3, (March 2003), pp. 715-751 (abstract online in Project Muse). Davis, L. E., Proctor, E. K. (1987). Race, Gender and Class. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Department of Statistics. (2004). Bahamas living conditions survey, 2001. Department of Statistics. (2008). Report of the 2000 census of population housing. Gerth, Hans C. Mills, W. (1958) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, (Oxford University Press, 1958). (Webers key statement of the multiple nature of stratification). Krieger, N.; Williams, D. R.; and Moss, N. E. (1997). Measuring Social Class in U.S. Public Health; Research: Concepts, Methodologies, and Guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18:341-378. Lloyd. W. (1949). et al. Social Class in America: A Manual of Procedure for the Measurement of Social Status (1949). Milton, F. Poverty, Inequality, and Crime: There are two kinds of money: your money and my money. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition) (ISBN: 1557987912) Saunders, O. C. (2003b). The Bahamian economy in the context of the western hemisphere. Journal of The School of Business The College of The Bahamas, 12, 100-107. Saunders, O. C. (2004). The unique Bahamas. Readings in Banking and Finance, 3, 73-84. Thompson, T. (2007, November 10lb). â€Å"Child rights activist call for focus on rehabilitation for troubled youths†. The Tribune, p. 3. United Nations Development Programme. (2005) Human development report: International cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world. New York: Author. Retrieved September, 2009 from Zastrow, C. (1993). Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare (5th ed.). California: Books/Cole Publishing Company.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

The Ethics of the Mental Pursuit of Perfection Essay -- Exploratory Es

Introduction    The number of individuals diagnosed for one or more mental disorders and consequently treated with a corresponding drug has significantly increased the past several years. The following statistics displaying this are shocking: * 8.5 million people are prescribed Effexor, an anti-depressant every year (Harris, 2004). * More than 1 million children and teenagers are taking drugs for some form of mental disorder (Elias, 2004). * There are close to 2 million cases each year of drug complications that result in 180,000 deaths or life-threatening illnesses in the eldery (Langreth, 2004). These alarming figures call us to question the causes behind this influx of diagnosed mental disorders as well as the consequential drug prescription as a solution. When asked to discuss the ethics of the mental pursuit of perfection, there are several different aspects to consider. The main ethical issues raised lie in the prescription of drugs to children and the over prescription of drugs. In addition, I will discuss who and what are responsible for our culture’s desire to â€Å"quick fix† every definable problem with some type of drug, be it prescribed, non-prescribed, or self-prescribed.       Mental Disorders in Children When one thinks about mental disorders in respect to children, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) immediately comes to mind. Defined now as â€Å"children who are excessively active, are unable to sustain their attention, and are deficient in their impulse control to a degree that is deviant for their developmental level† (Loewenton, 2002), ADHD now affects up to 5% of schoolchildren and continues in roughly 60% of those youths as they age (Henderson, 2004). There are many different opinions re... ...ago Press, 2002.    Langreth, Robert. â€Å"Just Say No!† Forbes. 29 November, 2004. pgs. 103-112    Loewenton, Ed. â€Å"Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.† Turner toys. 4 October 2004. .    Merrow, John. â€Å"Attention Deficit Disorder-A Dubious Diagnosis?† The Merrow Report. 4 October..    Moore, Thomas. â€Å"No prescription for happiness.† Boston Globe 17 October 1999. .    USA Today. â€Å"FDA cites possible suicide link between children, Paxil.† USA Today. 19 June, 2003. .    Zernike, Kate and Melody Petersen. â€Å"Schools’ Backing of Behavior Drugs Comes Under Fire.† New York Times: 18 August 2004. .

Sunday, November 10, 2019

It236 Week 2

Web site plan part one. * Tittle: Cocibolca Money Transfer web site. This site will be design for a small money transfer business, in need of a web site to promote their services and to try to enhance their business success. * Site purpose- The purpose of my site is to promote and informed customers about the products and services offered by this small business services. In which customers will be able to see and understand the different products and services in detail; such as pricing on every product and services.By creating and maintaining this site the company, is hoping to gain more customers to use their services. This site will help the company to keep up with today’s business standards. * Key points of this web site- This web site will be focused in providing a customer service and successful customer experience. 1. Detail information- when customers go online, they do not want to make a phone call or email a company to obtain the information that they need about produ cts and services.The goal is to provide ensure that, when a customer goes into this web site easily find answers to any questions. 2. Services- On this site the services offered by this company, will be describe in detail using a good visual design. Having this in mind it is important to have clean and simple design that will stand out from competitors. A great visual design will catch the attention of everyone that logs in; the first impression it is crucial. 3.Contact information- It is essential to provide contact information that a potential customer can use easily. It is ideal to provide more than one contact method, such and email address and also a contact form. 4. Search field- Having a search field will be very beneficial; it can be very frustrating having to go over a few pages of site before obtaining information of a specific service or content. * Target Audience-The target audience will be the Hispanic community that uses the products and services of money transfer busi ness.The local Hispanic community of Miami Dade County especially those from south and Central America that are known to use money transfer services very often. * Pages transition- In this site I am planning to create a uniform look among each page and sections of the site. By reinforcing and identifying elements of the site and create smooth transitions from one page to another by repeating colors and fonts and by using a page layout that allows hierarchical levels. On this site I also think that it is imperative to use all the blank spaces of every pages and section on the site.With the use of every white space on this web site, will guide the readers and it will define each area of the site. * Slogan- Good service is our expertise!!!!! — This slogan will induce the target audience to use the business services, and the slogan drive the site content, because it represent everything that will be presented on the web site. Every service available to help every customer in thei r needs and also to demonstrate the expertise of the business in servicing customers is presented on this slogan. Sources: (Sklar)

Friday, November 8, 2019

Green Grass, Running Water

Green Grass, Running Water Gender identity in Robert King’s Green Grass, Running Water is constantly overlapping and is developed from a native point of view. This deals majorly with the context of the invasion of the native values of communalism by the western ideologies of Christian patriarchy. The role of both men and women in the text is shown but women are the major ones who interest is centered on. Their role in the developing society mainly in the Blossom community is one that is highly remarkable and important.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Green Grass, Running Water specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the case of the first woman, she depicts a society where women are given respect because of their intelligence and in helping in maintaining good relationships with other members of society. Women really try to maintain cohesiveness in society and this can be seen in the case where the first woman wants to share apples (King 70) . Hence we can say that in the book Green Grass, Running water, King paints the female character as one who wants to maintain good relationship between both living and non-living beings in the world. This can be seen to be the native values of communalism. The idea about braiding strands of air is also depicted as a way in which the strength of women is shown when they are together, this helps withstand the outside forces and this can be seen as a resistance towards the new cultures. Women in this context are used a symbol to form a unit, which is to bring unity in society with which a people can fight external forces. A literal example of â€Å"braiding in† can be seen in Lionel’s mother in her recipes, whenever she misses an ingredient, she finds a way of blending in some native ingredient to substitute the missing ingredients. This helps her prepare meals that are tasty and liked by all who eat them. For instance when Lionel asks her â€Å"What is it?†  "Vegetable soup and artichoke omelet†Advertising Looking for essay on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More â€Å"Where’d you get the artichokes?† â€Å"I had to substitute.† â€Å"So, whats in it now?† â€Å"Elk† (Kings 81). She is therefore innovative; she can use both native and modern recipes, an indicator of how both native and modern ways can be braided together for a better life. The women in the story are brought out as epitomes that are overturning stereotypes and seeking to secure a respectable space in the Society of Green Grass, Running Water, for instance, Norma contributes towards the growth of the Blossom community. As a woman in the community, she is the one who organizes other members in the rebuilding of Eli’s cabin together with that of her mother when the dam bursts its banks (King 170). She is also a source of counseling and guidance on El i and Lionel. This shows how a woman can rise against all odds to be a visionary member of society and helpful to fellow women and men alike.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Green Grass, Running Water specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In as much as King uses men throughout the text, they have also contributed greatly to the growth of the plot to its climax but one thing that is for sure is the fact that women are the ones used to bridge the gap that has been created by the two worlds, that of the natives and that of the non-native. All aspects of both worlds are just but part of the great whole and therefore if both are taken positively, then both can stand each other. Kings, Thomas. Green Grass, Running Water. New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1993

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Globalization Effects on Jamaica and Thailand Essays

Globalization Effects on Jamaica and Thailand Essays Globalization Effects on Jamaica and Thailand Paper Globalization Effects on Jamaica and Thailand Paper Globalization through dam building (for electricity) and tourism (for economic security), has imposed positive and negative effects on many countries and cultures. This paper focuses on tourisms impact on Jamaica and the consequences dams have had in Thailand. For both countries globalization has had both advantages and disadvantages. Tourisms Effect on Jamaica Globalization through tourism has had a significant effect on Jamaica. Originally, tourism was intended to profit the country by tourist spending. It was believed the economy would grow from an increase in job availability. Also, the conjecture of most Jamaicans was the hotels generated tourist spending which provided a growing economy. Unfortunately, what was intended to be the main source of income for Jamaica also became the cause of several negative circumstances. Tourism has not benefited the countries economic issues. Monies brought in are now being used to battle the increased waste disposal concerns, water shortages, and low paying jobs. Jamaicans typically work as maids and kitchen help, even as prostitutes in the tourist industry. Sewage from these facilities often empties into the ocean which along with siltation, pesticides, overfishing, and physical destruction including anchors from cruise ships destroy coral reefs and marine life. † (Harper, Jack . 2003). Most Jamaicans have become disillusioned with the promise of economic freedom from tourism. Conflict over the advantages and disadvantages of tourism in Jamaica has continued. Dams Effect on Thailand Hydroelectric projects are increasing around the world in consequence to rising energy needs. These dams have had both positive and negative impacts in Thailand economically and culturally. Hydroelectric power has provided substantial economic benefits by energy sales. One such dam built to bring hydropower to communities in Thailand was Pak Moon Dam. The dam was expected to bring other benefits to Thailand besides electricity. : For example, an increase in fish yields from stocking the reservoir, and the ncome from charging foreign neighboring countries for power. Although there were advantages for the Thailand people, for many Thai it has had more negative than positive effects. â€Å"Major Challenges in balancing the benefits of clean electricity, water storage and flood control from the dams against negative impacts. These include population displacement, obstruction to fish movements up and down the river, and changes in water and sediment flow†. (Richardson, Michael 2009). The disadvantages began to out way the advantages. Building of Pac Moon Dam and other Dams have affected Thailand in several other adverse methods. It severely decreased fish up to 60%. â€Å"According to the Foundation for Ecological Recovery, the rivers fishing industry alone is worth up to 3 billion annually, and the existing dams are already decreasing that profit. † (Blake, Haley 2009). Whole species became extinct. The river had 50 different rapids that flowed with river dependent fish. Riverbank vegetation, Bamboo, and mushrooms began to disappear. Liver fluke, Blood fluke, and Schistosomiasis increased due to stagnant water. Villagers were dependent on income generated from fish, bamboo and mushrooms. Food and income deteriorated. Many Villagers moved away. Their lives and livelihood depended on the river. The people of Pac Moon Dam had already experienced the ill ecosystem change from past dams built as expressed in a letter opposing the Xayaburi dam project. â€Å"As a river of global significance we are urging the Governments of Laos and Thailand to call a stop to the destructive Xayaburi dam: Peter Jansen of both ENDS, an international NGO and member of the coalition. (Hance, Jeremy 2011). Many Thai’s disagreed with the dams advantages and sought to challenge it. The Thailand villagers (Pak Moon villagers), determined to make changes have fought for their rights by protests. Especially protests employing traditions and customs. For example in April of 2000, â€Å"more than 3,000 people gathered their boats at the Pak Moon dam to perform Sueb Chata Maenam, and to lobby authorities to let the Moon River run free again. Sueb Chata Maenam meats â€Å"extending a river’s life†, and it is a modem of adaption of an old ceremony which pays homage to rivers, which are considered the life blood of Thai traditional society. † (World Rainforest Movement, 2000). Conclusion Globalization continues to wither away biological and cultural diversity as seen by Thailand battle with dam’s consequences and Jamaica’s tourism impacts. For these two cultures the disadvantages consequently out way the advantages.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Business Models and Planning Chapter Questions Assignment - 2

Business Models and Planning Chapter Questions - Assignment Example The researcher states that international ventures are defined as project prospective transformed to processes with investment coupled with adequate risk. International ventures undergo different situations in the business world. First, Human resource management has been a big issue that must be solved to boost economic situations in the world. Human resource activities comprise of everyday practices of managing people and formulating policies in given organizations. The human resource offers the platform to indicate how workers will be managed. Majority of organizations are getting into fresh global markets so as to develop and sustain competitive advantages in the competitive environment. According to Hoque, human resource creates a tussle between the employer and employees when issues such as salaries rise. To accomplish international expansions, many organizations have resorted to using different market strategies. Another important event is co-operation. Studies indicate that glo balization has created an effect for organizations to collaborate thus seeking new opportunities to work together instead of identifying situations to achieving majority control. Whereas control plays a pivotal role in international ventures, co-operation is crucial in enhancing chances of success in international business ventures. Attempted control of the business and pursued efforts of co-operation requires trust from various patterns. Trust is crucial in management efficiencies. Manipulation also affects international business ventures. It is very clear that new ventures could manipulate the environment through ganging up with well-established companies. Manipulation implies creating changes in an environment in order to attain uniformity between venture and the environment. The act of manipulation could be regarded as an opportunistic and purposeful attempt to influence, co-opt and control both evaluations and institutional pressures.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Values and Ethics in Professional Business Term Paper

Values and Ethics in Professional Business - Term Paper Example This makes the smooth functioning and sustained endurance of the business organizations quite certain. Fresh inclinations and concerns which occur on a regular basis are capable enough of giving rise to a significant trouble for the organizations and even for the end-customers. The environment of business has been undergoing a constant alteration which is giving birth to various complexities with regard to the business organizations (International Trade Administration, 2004). In the recent times, owing to the intricacies involved with businesses it has become necessary and vital for the organizations to indulge in appropriate ethical behavior and to maintain certain values for the reason of staying away from probable lawsuits. The public disgraces of the corporate unethical and malpractices have created an adverse influence on the viewpoint of the general people towards numerous organizations like Arthur Andersen, Enron, Union Carbide and WorldCom (Mahdavi, 2005). The Need for Values & Ethics in Professional Business Compromising with the values and indulging in unethical behavior have led to the collapse of quite a few organizations. In the present day’s context, the business organizations are anticipated to comply with the standards regarding carrying out of the business in a responsible way. The expected standards surpass the ones that were followed traditionally. Although, the concept of business is frequently referred to on the basis of profits, productions and jobs but at the same time, it is comprehended and acknowledged worldwide that a particular business enterprise continues to be an associate of the community it is operating in. The hunt for profit followed by economic development is not being considered to be a permit for disregarding the standards of the community norms, respect, quality, integrity along with the values with regard to the business organizations (Weiss, 2008). Profit is measured to be the most important factor for the busines s enterprises. Enhanced business performance, economic development and profits have been found to be attained by those who efficiently and competently promote and meet up to the rational beliefs of their respective primary stakeholders. The stakeholders entail employees, investors, customers, environment and suppliers along with managers as well as owners. The factor of success with regard to any kind of a business is in due course gauged and ascertained in terms of profits as well as losses. The socially dependable businesses have been learnt to create the proceeds and the capitals that is supposed to be necessary to continue the business functions and to ensure existence in the long-term with the help of taking into concern the beliefs of the stakeholders. The businesses that are conducted in a socially responsible manner have been identified to be successful in creating and making sufficient income for meeting up to the actual ‘cost of capital’, the doubts as well as risks related to the economic procedures that are predicted to arise in the coming days along with the necessity of the employees and the pensioners. However, the businesses that are considered to be socially irresponsible remain unsuccessful in meeting up to the mentioned expenses as the reasonable requirements of the stakeholders are not met by such businesses. For instance, a proficient, effectual and dependable business organization would earn income or profit by fulfilling the necessities of its customers. It would lure capital with the help of meeting up to the prospects of the different investors. It further augments its effectiveness with the help of luring employees with superior competencies. It trims down the expenses by bringing

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Strong debate about the advantages and disadvantages of fair-value Assignment

Strong debate about the advantages and disadvantages of fair-value accounting - Assignment Example These are the estimates that they would get if they were to sell the financial instruments in this case assets and liabilities. The companies report profits or losses when the value of their assets increase or their liabilities decreases. The losses decrease the value of the net income and hence the reported equity also reduces. Fair values have played a crucial role in United States for more than half a century. The standards of accounting that allow or otherwise require fair value reporting have increased in a big way over the recent years. In 2006, a controversial and important new standard of accounting was announced by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) no. 157, which provides a more detailed guidance in assisting firms in the use of fair values. The applicability of this has in recent years been put into test by market conditions which were extreme. Fair value was used as early as the late nineteenth century where it was common for organizations to use appraised values in quantifying their capital assets. In other words it was the value that would be realized by their sale in the market. This exit value was also believed by the economists, to be the most appropriate in construction of financial statements. (See, among others, Diewert, 2005). However, the abuse of this accounting standard by managers eventually led to the enactment of more accounting standards that were more formal by the accounting profession. This led to the emergence of historical cost as the dominant standard for reporting the financial instruments; assets and liabilities. Despite this, fair value remained a preferred concept by many theorists in the field (Magnan, 2009, p. 191). For example, Staubus (1961) and Sterling (1970) argue in support of fair values in financial reporting (p 192), which is the realizable value of the financial instrument. The exit value in accounting was used as a default option when accounting for some assets, however, it re-entered the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Bioethical Principles in Medical Science Essay Example for Free

Bioethical Principles in Medical Science Essay The principlist approach to biomedical ethics is understood on the basis of two central theses. The first thesis is that moral principles are non-absolute and that they do not occur in a determinate order of precedence. This means that every single principle is prima facie. These prima facie principles are; beneficence, respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. The second central thesis, usually called the global applicability thesis, posits that the four prima facie principles derived from common morality make principlism universally applicable. Analysis of ethical questions based on the biomedical principles of ethics is central to moral reasoning while at the same time respects exigencies of circumstance and liberates pluralism (Beauchamp Childress 14; Herissone-Kelly 65). Since this application of ethical principles is sensitive to moral beliefs encountered in everyday lives, it forms the basis of ethics in biomedical practice. It acts as a guide to action even though the four principles do not operate in a determinate order of precedence. In attempting to discern the ethics of physician assisted suicide one central question comes into mind. Is assisted suicide morally justified? In a nutshell, assisted suicide or more specifically, physician assisted suicide, refers to a case where the patient has ended his life either with a lethal dose or any other medically provided instrument after the patient requested for the lethal dosage from the physician who provided the dosage for the specific reason of ending the life. The difference between euthanasia and assisted suicide is that in the case of euthanasia, it is the physician who administers the lethal dose or withdraws the life support system because the patient in question is unable to administer the same to him/herself. Thus, the difference lies in the difference in who makes the action that precedes death. In assisted suicide, it is the patient who acts last. The choice of taking the lethal dosage or pushing the button that will terminate life solely rests with the patient and they have the capacity to alter their decision before their actions become irreversible. Even though the physician plays a causal role in both; the patient kills him/herself in assisted suicide while in the latter, it is the physician who kills the patient. This difference creates an intrinsic moral difference between the two. This brings into question the principle of respect for autonomy. The moral principle of respect for autonomy refers to a patient’s freedom of liberty or choice interests. However, it should not be confused with an all-for-nothing phenomenon. Gradations of autonomy and its interpretation in different circumstances are variable. A patient’s autonomy can be interfered with when there is excessive control (too much interference with the patient’s decisions) or when there is too little interference (neglect of the patient). Respect for an individuals autonomy is also threatened in cases where an individual’s right contravenes another individual’s freedom of choice and their actions (Brent 40). With respect to assisted suicide, the patient in question having satisfied the qualifications of making an informed consent can request the causal assistance of the physician to carry out actions that directly lead to their death. In such a case, professional codes of ethics bind physicians to respect the patient’s rights to self determination by unobstructing the conditions for the operation of an autonomous action such as: intentionality, understanding, and the complete absence of any controlling influence. In a situation where all these conditions are met and the physician dutifully performs their causal roles, physician assisted suicide is ethically correct. This is so because so long as the patient’s rights are supported it automatically follows that ethical permissibility of assisted suicide is also granted (Weir 89; http://www. deathreference. com/). In cases whether the patient is suffering from a treatable clinical depression or dementia which impair the decision making capacity of the patient, the right to self determination do not apply (http://www. inclusiondaily. com/). The moral principle of Non maleficence hold that a person should not do harm. It specifically holds that one should have the capacity to discern actions that are morally harmful. However, there is controversy as determining the intention behind an action. At the same time, determining whether an intentional or unintentional action refrains from action harms or puts the subject at a risk of harm. The moral principle of beneficence entails the following obligations: to prevent harm, to eliminate harm, and to do good. These three conditions characterize the measures taken by medical practitioners to balance the components of risks, harms and benefits. Beneficence therefore encompasses professional, personal and societal obligations (Brent 41). The principle of beneficence largely builds on the foundational principle of non maleficence. In this case assisted suicide is ethically permissible on the basis of an individuals well being. It can be argued that in such a case, to promoting and protecting the patients well being may be contradictory to the patient’s right to self determination. However, this is not so. Life is often is perceived as being good and its value is a product of our pursuit of goods within life itself. In an assisted suicide scenario, a person who is fully competent to reach a decision decides that life sustaining treatments no longer has any benefit but has become a burden. Most of these patients are often critically ill, dying or in a very debilitated and severely compromised state. If such patients request the means to end their lives, it is in line with non maleficence or beneficence because such an act is value to the patient’s life. Unless if the patient is unable to reach a competent decision and the dictatorial authority transferred to a surrogate, the right of self determination stands and is not in contradiction to the principles of non maleficence and maleficence(Weir 90). Moreover, such a decision is only ethical if it does not infringe on the moral and professional values of the physician. Additionally, assisted suicide is an act of compassion that eliminates further suffering and pain. Refusal to grant the patient their claim or entitlement is akin to putting them to unbearable suffering. Finally, the moral principle of justice simply refers to fairness. It is the act of receiving ones due; entitlement or claim. Distributive justice concerns itself with how fairly benefits can be allocated and distributed. Basically, four considerations guide moral justice. For instance, an equal share, according to a persons need, according to a person’s effort, and lastly, according to societal contribution (Brent 42). Physician assisted suicide is supported by the moral principle of justice in the context of â€Å"treat like cases alike† (http://depts. washington. edu/). When competent but terminally ill patients request lethal dose medications or refuse life sustaining treatments with the sole purpose of hastening death, it is only just that they should be granted their claim. However, these arguments are only suitable when the ethics of assisted suicide is analyzed on a basis of the biomedical ethical principles. Works Cited BBC News. Assisted suicide danger claim. April 20, 2009. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/8008736. stm Beauchamp, Tom L, Childress, James F. Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford University Press, 2001; 1-23 Brent, Nancy J. Nurses and the law: a guide to principles and applications. 2nd Edition. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2000; 40-47 Reynolds, Dave. Assisted Suicides For Mental Illness, Too, Swiss Court Rules. Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide, Eugenics, Bioethics. Inclusion Daily Express. February 5, 2007. http://www. inclusiondaily. com/archives/07/02/05/020507sweuth. htm Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Bioethics. http://www. deathreference. com/A-Bi/Bioethics. html Harrison-Kelly, Peter. The Principlist approach to bioethics, and its stormy journey overseas. in, â€Å"Scratching the surface of bioethics†, By Matti Hayry, Tuija Takala. Rodopi Press, 2003; 65-72 Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ethics in Medicine. University of Washington School of Medicine. http://depts. washington. edu/bioethx/topics/pas. html Weir, Robert F. Physician-assisted suicide. Indiana University Press, 1997; 86-97

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Psychopathy and Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD) Essay -- What I

Stories of the ‘psychopath’ are often intriguing to individuals in the general population as they receive exhaustive media coverage and are the basis for many interesting story lines in books, television and movies. The idea of the ‘psychopath’ is usually misunderstood and merged with other dispositions such as Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD), but these concepts are two distinct entities. Defining a ‘psychopath’ is a difficult task. Frist, psychopathy is a trait and not a disorder (Strickland et al, 2013). Characterizing psychopathy using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual Fifth Edition (DSM-V) has demonstrated effective trait-based coverage in terms of psychopathy and its facets that are identifiable through the Personality Inventory for DSM-V (PID-V) (Strickland et al, 2013). The identification of psychopathy as a trait indicates that individuals with this specific trait possess patterns of thoughts, feelings or actions that are distinguishable. For example, the Five Factor Model (Costa and Wildiger, 2002) describes five broad dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. Individuals all possess some degree of these identifiable traits, however they are expressed in different comportments upon a continuum. Possessing the average trait has not historically bred problems (Costa and Wildiger, 2002) but, when individuals approach an extreme end of a trait (extremely low or extremely high) then there may be indication of some kind of personality disorder. Hence, the term psychopathy and ASPD are often used interchangeably as individuals that demonstrate extreme forms of psychopathy are often diagnosed with ASPD (Strickland et al, 2013). The DSM-V aims to correct this binder. The dimensional persona... ... Psychopathy Scores Predict Adolescent Inpatient Aggression. Assessment, 10(1), 102-112. Strickland, C., Drislane, L., Lucy, M., Krueger, R., & Patrick, C. (2013). Characterizing Psychopathy Using DSM-5 Personality Traits. Assessment, 20(3), 327-338 . Szalavitz, M. (n.d.). Why Do Some People Become Psychopaths?. MSN Healthy Living. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from Woodworth, M., & Porter, S. (2002). In cold blood: characteristics of criminal homicides as a function of psychopathy. Journal of abnormal psychology, 111(3), 436. Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute), [1999] 2 S.C.R. 625 World Health Organization. 2001b. Burden of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. (accessed March 21, 2008).

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Last Samurai Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The idea of honor is different to many people. The dictionary defines honor as, That which rightfully attracts esteem, respect, or consideration; self-respect; dignity; courage; fidelity; especially, excellence of character; high moral worth; virtue; nobleness; specifically, in men, integrity; uprightness; trustworthiness; in women, purity; chastity. [1913 Webster]. However in the film The Last Samurai, the idea of honor seems to differ between the different people in each culture.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Americans equate honor with how many battles have been won. Not necessarily how the battles are won. We are introduced to the idea of American culture changing the Japanese way by first being shown the Japanese buying advanced weaponry from the Americans. Nathan Algren, played by Tom Cruise was revered with utmost respect for his victories in the civil war and against the Indians. However through out those battles many innocent people were killed. These facts however did not stop the American government from awarding him many medals of Honor, and thus leading to his recruitment by the Japanese emperor to train his armies. No medals however could stop the nightmares that Algren would have every night as he replayed the dishonorable things he had done in past battles.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Japanese people were attempting to begin adapting to a western style of life. The government tried to take the samurai way of life out...

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Empress Wu’s rise to power is interesting

There is A Confucian dogma that pushes women ruling as â€Å"unnatural† (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008).   However, in China there lived one woman who rose to power. Wu Hou, also called Empress Wu Zetian, ruled China during the Tang dynasty, the only female to do so (2008). While some depict Empress Wu’s regime as autocracy, it could not be denied that she ruled China effectively, preserving the country’s diplomatic relationships with other nations (Hucker, 1975, p.143). Empress Wu’s rise to power is interesting. The Tang dynasty is described as a time when women experienced some freedom, at a time when women were not limited to being subservient (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). It was a period where women became part of cultural and political endeavors (2008).   Wu came from a noble family and thus was taught music, how to write and read Chinese classics (2008).   Her father was one of Emperor Kao- tsu’s supporters while her mother descended from the Sui royal family (Safra, 2002, p.90). When she was 13 years old, she was sent to Emperor Tai Tsung’s court to be a servant (2008). Soon, Wu became Emperor Tai Tsung’s favorite concubine. When the emperor died, Wu was removed from the palace, as customary (Hucker, 1975,b p.142). The emperor’s son, Kau-Tsung became the emperor at age 21 (2002). However, the new emperor, as fate would have it, was also enamored with Wu, giving him sons (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). Wu soon became the emperor’s favorite concubine and soon was hungry for power. Rumors have it that that Wu killed her own child and blamed Empress Wang (Kau- Tsung’s wife) of the crime (Walsh, 2003).   Kau-Tsung believed Wu and married her, making her the new empress (2008). Five years into their marriage, the emperor was struck with stroke and soon gave power to Empress Wu. When Emperor Kau-Tsung died, Empress Wu used her power to renounce the new emperors, her sons and by 690, Empress Wu was crowned as the Emperor of China (Walsh, 2003). She ruled China until 705 (Hucker, 1975, p.142). Empress Wu soon began her campaign to uplift the women in a relatively men-dominated environment. She ordered scholars to write biographies of prominent women (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). She also saw to it that her mother’s clan was given high positions in the political arena (2008). The new empress favored religion and symbolism. Rituals were changed during her reign (Safra, 2002, p.90).   Names of officials were even altered, and the emperor or empress, in her case, was dubbed with the new title â€Å"Heavenly Emperor† (p.90).   Empress Wu manipulated the government to follow her, employing informers and agents (p. 90). She made Buddhism as the preferred state religion (Empress Wu Zetian, 2008). Empress Wu was able to engineer the Buddhist scripture into building a Ming T’ang or â€Å"Hall of Light†, a shrine to Heaven as depicted in the Classics (p. 90). She was even able to convince every prefecture to create a temple which alludes to Wu being an incarnation of Buddha (p.90). The empress’ given surname ‘Wu’ was also exploited. Everyone who had the same surname as the empress was exempted from paying taxes (p.90). In 690, Empress Wu changed the dynasty from T’ang to Chou (Safra, 2002,p. 90). She had become China’s female ruler. During Empress Wu’s reign, China was in the midst of foreign battles.   Despite being depicted as a dictator, Empress Wu was instrumental in China’s diplomatic relationships. Together with Kao-Tsung, Wu mediated in the Korean Civil War (Hucker, 1975,p.143). At that time, Koreans were able to dominate in the Korean state of Silla, they acknowledged Wu’s reign (p.143). When Empress Wu was 80 years old, her power had started to diminish. She was finally abdicated and the T’ang dynasty was restored (Safra, 2002,p. 91). Empress Wu is truly an interesting leader. For one, she is female. At a time when males where dominating the political arena, she rose to power. It is remarkable especially since Asian culture tends to be patriarchal and for a female to rule and succeed, that is exceptional. True, Empress Wu’s reign was plagued with intrigues and scandals.   She was a dictator, a usurper and while this is not new to some leaders, it is still rather surprising to find a woman who is such. That is not to say that only men can be dictators. Women can also be dictators but sometimes they simply do it subtly. Empress Wu was shrewd and she let the world knew it.   It is even shocking to discover that she may have murdered her own child just to fulfil her desire to become empress. Although this was never confirmed, the thought of parent harming his/her child is disturbing. It is something that people read in newspapers or see in the television now but to think that it happened way before it has become a norm, to say the least, it truly startling. Stories of leaders conning people to get what they want is normal, albeit wrong. This just goes to show that even during those times; power and greed were already present and destroying individuals. On a positive note, Empress Wu was one who paved the way for women empowerment. She used her position to uplift the status of women in her country.   It is interesting to know during a time when women were thought to be subservient; there rose a woman who wanted to change the norm. Leaders, regardless of gender, can learn something from Empress Wu- good traits and bad ones. References Empress Wu Zetian (2008). Retrieved 17 February 2008 Hucker, C. (1975). China’s Imperial Past. An Introduction to Chinese History And Culture. California: Stanford University Press. Safra, J. (Ed.). (2002). China. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.16, pp.90-91. Walsh, J. (2002). The Empress Wu Hou- China’s Only Female Ruler, Retrieved 17 February 2008, from